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OLICOGNOGRAPHY on SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURES

System

Engineering

Development

Scale

Health

Social

High Buildings Office

Basic Olicognograph: Buildings Architecture

Sustainability

Large buildings offer the opportunity of large scale and often specific purpose economics allowing to managed sustainable solutions in plenty of aspects of green buildings. Greening turning better accepted, large facilities, having often budget cost effective opportunities, reputation, it remains 3 questions relevant to regulators, when transgressions: 1) The sort of project wanting to ignore good sustainable practices be it political power abusing their authority (or their private contractors) for not respecting regulations or private schemes enough powerful for uncaring social criteria. Meanwhile technological solutions available may correct those attitudes, unless because peripherical good and bad options coexist and there is not the capacity or poor level of technical competitivity. Otherwise demonstrations should be on costs saving efficiency. 2) At the middle, there are aesthetic reasons for buildings on private real estate project close to architectural style. Despite that project could otherwise have satisfying technical criteria. Soon involvement of cultural authorities and concerned partners (sustainable tourism industry sector) can bring solutions. Finally 3) The refusal of a private project to incorporate in the area of shared sustainable solutions. This could imply more delicate discussions on compatibilities and incompatibilities, crossed externalities, etc.

Observing that most such medium or large scale project having the technical, skill and financial resources to drive well the projet, to start here by the pragraphs on sustainability.

Kyoto prescriptions observed in Japan, as "measures in the commercial and residential sectors: - Energy-conserving equipment such efficient water heaters - Reduce standby power consumption - Improve efficiency of equipment that meets top-runner standards - Provide information on energy conserving equipment, etc. - Help spread and develop technology for energy-conserving equipment such as efficient water heaters - Reduce stand by power consumption".

"Aims of Green building can be: 1) Lower water costs, by monitoring consumption and reusing stormwater and/or construction wastewater where possible; 2) Lower site-clearing costs, by minimizing site disruption and movement of earth and installation of artificial systems; 3) Lower landfill dumping fees and associated hauling charges, through reuse and recycling of construction and demolition debris; 4) Lower materials costs, with more careful purchase and reuse of resources and materials; 5) Possible earnings from sales of reusable items removed during building demolition; and 6) Fewer employee health problems resulting from poor indoor air quality. 7) Lower energy costs, by monitoring usage, installing energy-efficient lamps and fixtures, and using occupancy sensors to control lighting fixtures".

Policy and regulations, or revisions of the sort, "for being driven like by local authorities could include the following:

  1. Examine local government policies and procurement procedures for inclusion of green building measures.
  2. Develop a demonstration green building project or local sustainable building design competition.
  3. Require that government building projects incorporate renewable energy and energy efficient systems, indoor-air-quality guidelines, and waste and water-efficiency measures.
  4. Survey and review other cities with green building projects, programs, and standards.
  5. Assemble a multidisciplinary team within the community to discuss the possibility of developing a green building program.
  6. Develop a green building awards program; co-sponsor the program with the local utility and local chapters of design, engineering, and property-management societies.
  7. Survey and publish the community’s green building resources.
  8. Initiate a conference or series of lectures on green building issues.
  9. Assemble a green building resource library within an existing library or municipal office.
  10. Initiate a green building computer-based bulletin board or Internet site.
  11. Publish case studies of local green building projects or develop a green building".

More Systemic Studies

Such project can too have plenty of positive externalities as for training, pilot stuties, systemic experiment at the cross roads of residential areas, light industrial site, government district and so on, if ressources allow. It could be easier here to cooperate public authorities or social infrastructures schemes rather than in sort of projects where there could be separated interests.

"Life Cycle Analysis approach is based on the belief that all stages in the life cycle of a product generate environmental impacts. It proceeds in the following steps:

1. Goal definition spells out the purpose of the study, its scope, and the time and spatial resolution. It also includes the description of the system boundaries, its level of detail and the origin of the collected information. The result of this step is a clear, accurate and transparent description of the analysed system.

2. Inventory analysis identifies and quantifies the environmental loads associated with the product, such as resources depletion (material and energy) or pollutant emissions. It inventories the discharge of chemical or physical loads (substances, heat, noise, etc.) from the product system to the environment. The inventory analysis results in an inventory table that lists all itemised loads.

3. Life cycle impact assessment defines and quantifies all potentially adverse effects of a product based on the inventory analysis. It includes their classification into impact categories and the evaluation of the characterisation factors, which weight the effect of the inventoried loads for each category. Then it combines the loads listed in the inventory table for each environmental category (characterisation).

4. Results interpretation analyses the environmental impacts in accordance with the goal of the LCA study and may include an improvement analysis. Result interpretation based on these environmental indicators may provide a starting point for the redesign of a building".

"Elementary phases of a Life Cycle Analysis can apply to: 1) Material manufacture (includes, raw material extraction, process and transport), 2) Transport to construction site, 3) Construction assembly, 4) Transport to building site (prefabricated), 5) Placement on building (prefabricated), 6) Operation 7) Maintenance, 8) Replacement, 9) Deconstruction, 10) Transport to disposal site, 11) Disposal management."

Many structures make a field for modelization and simulation. Small buildings may now-a-day have computer systems ressourcesand aid to construction but large special buildings will generally have to design their own specific program.

Comparison of Building Physics Testing and/or Simulation Approaches.

Experimental




Scale model




. Low cost

. Reproductive experiment

. Comparison of variants

. Scale effects

. Model approximation/error

. Measurement errors

Full scale

. Complex phenomenon

. Global analysis

. Time consuming

. High cost

. Measurement errors

Mathematical

Analytical

. Ease to use

. Simplified model

Numerical (computer)

. Complex model

. Fast calculation

. Comparison of variants

. Request calibration/validation

. Model might be complex

. Model approximation/error

Sort of parameters to includes in sort of energetic - thermal confort models: "Physical attributes 1) Hygro-thermal : Density Specific heat - Conductivity Solar absorption - Emissivity - Vapour resistance 2) Photo-colourimetry Colourimetry, reflectance 3) Room acoustics Absorption coefficients. Assessment methods Thermal - Thermal transmittance - Dynamic characteristics - Steady-state energy consumption - Dynamic behaviour: Nodal network, response factor Ventilation - BSI - ASHRAE - Hybrid - Flow/system network - Zonal - CFD Lighting - Lumen - Split-flux method - Radiosity - Ray-tracing Room acoustics - Sabine, Eyring, Milington, Pujolle, etc. - Image Source Model - Radiosity - Ray-tracing - Cone/pyramid Tracing - Hybrid LCIA - Life cycle assessment according to ISO. Can be used with any indicators such as the Ecopoints, Eco-indicator and EPS".

Index on large building issues

  1. Alternative and special designs: - design loads - combination of load effects - strengh and service ability performance - objectives - load path continuity and integrity - overseas construction - service life - stability - special inspections.
  2. Footings and foundations - general - design- foundations and soil investigations - allowable load-bearing values and lateral sliding resistance of soils - footings and foundations - deep foundations - foundations for machinery - special inspections.
  3. Concrete structure design requirements - basis for design - earthquake resistant design- design strengths - design choices - sevice ability - load path integrity.
  4. Slabs on grade - basis for design - service ability - shrinkage compensating concrete - post - tensioned slabs.
  5. Masonry - basis for design - service ability - load path integrity.
  6. Steel structure design requirements - basis for design - service ability - load path integrity
  7. Structural welding - arc welding processes - welding positions - weldments subjected to earthquake and cyclic loading conditions - weldment strength and ductility - environmental factors important - to weldment performance.
  8. Metal roofing and metal (steel) deck diaphragms - metal roofing - metal deck diaphragms - basis for design metal deck diaphragms - stiffness for analysis.
  9. Metal building systems - metal building optimization - basis for design - strength and service ability issues design responsibility - special inspections.
  10. Wood structure design requirements - basis for design - servicablity requirements - special inspections.
  11. Special construction - concrete structures in corrosive environments - concrete structures protecting the environment - new materials and methods - special construction standards - aluminum structures - membrane structures - glass fiber reinforced concrete - fiber composites and reinforced plastics.
  12. Concrete structures in corrosive environments.
  13. Concrete structures protecting the environment.
  14. Aluminum structures.
  15. Membrane structures.
  16. Glass fiber reinforced concrete.
  17. Fiber composites and reinforced plastics".

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