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P01: olicognography

P03: infrastructures

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OLICOGNOGRAPHY on SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURES

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Education Buildings

Basic Olicognograph: Education Infrastructures

Education project

Globalization, on education, has created plenty of threats to the traditions of teaching, whatever the levels of educative system bad as weel as good. Infomation's technological means (we would prefer "communication' because of biases towards ideological propaganda) provides with huge potential of bias and potentialities distorsions. Plenty of good thinking still only need a sheet of paper, curiosity and coaching. Plenty of stupid things can be suggested by modern means of communication. Mostly because of the very personal experience of anyone with sciences and knowledge and all the family and social conditioning around social status and private returns, it has been hard to relate properly teaching and education means with thresholds effects on good evolution of society, related to education.

Classical economy measure by relating output returns of education and post-studies salaries to previous investment. And this may have been shown to be correlated. But this may have more to do with social geopolitical rigidities that are forcing training costs and salaries; even if at the same time, but not in all countries, good competition can make a difference. Normative effects are high but there are plenty of collateral rents of situation promoted by systems of priviledges of not good elites according selectivelly well to social origin rather than honnesty and social humane utility. In this picture developed countries show a conjunction of different reasons tending to maintain and even enhance discrimination.

Because the long term adjustments of processes of education, may be necessary to counterbalance the mistakes to "fast track of structural adjustment" in this sector of eduction, it is hard to see toward what sustainable world frame we are heading out going ahead a another dangerous international division of labour that nurtured so many social conflicts in the past. Technological means of revolution of information have plenty of good and bad effects, meanwhile eroding national systems of education. Globalization will be especially sensitive to matters of knowledge and problems and complexities and here is the future. Will revolution of information ? - into progress - deliver changes as expected ? - knowledge and wise development everywhere. Or new rigidities ? - also carried by actors of global education will going on promoting discriminations between authorized happy few leaders and unauthorized frustrated all other called "traditionalists".

So on one side there is education diffusion following complexity like of "Technological innovation laying in 3 ‘core’ approaches: 1) Fitness landscape models, 2) Complex network models, and 3) Percolation models. And soon the recombining the 3 core approaches". World wide web and other networks, sometimes underestimated informal means, can support that. So even if quantitatively things may look like as usual, there is plenty of space for good catastrophic effects as well able to be consistent with science.

On the other side of educative place and places for involving the spatial global, regional, national, undernational regional and local places of education facilities the trends are to give plenty of diversity to the architectural planning and decision of education facilities. Probably not as close to traditional classrooms as before. Overall there is a need of educations projects (added to efficient policies of primary education needs) and to relate to teaching facilities. It is to find the way to basic universal school(s) at low costs but with good quality for all, on conventional side and better ones in some specific facilities. There is also a need for higher and better focused spendings to sustainable development seriously anchored to humane one and to make functioning as simple as possible. Say especially for: internet access, scientific consistency of basic training, relaxed diversity in contains and in ways of training but strongly incorporating essential training for genuine applications, empowerment of cultures; for critical thinking on changes and sustainable solutions while let enough time and opportunities for self-responsible choice.

In the translation of a policy into programs to implement in education, it is important to examine: "1) Country background: location, geography, population, culture, and social stratification patterns; 2) Political context: national decision-making process, comparative value of education, role that education must play, capacity of the state to do planning, institutional structure of the political sector; 3) Economic context: demographic shifts, urbanization, migration, likely growth in sectors; 4) Education sector: access to educational opportunities, equity in the distribution of educational services, structure of the education system; internal efficiency, external efficiency, institutional arrangements for the management of the sector; 5) Dynamics of change".

In a national system of education it could be to pay special attention to: "1) Economics of education, costs and financing. 2) Manpower and employment. 3) Demographic studies. 4) The location of schools (school map) and sub-national planning. 5) Administration & management of Education facilities. 6) Curriculum development and evaluation. 7) Educational technology. 8) Primary, secondary and higher education. 9) Vocational and technical education. 10) Non-formal, out-of-school, adult and rural education".

An example of university programme’s general plan can consist in the following "6 basic strategies. 1) Redesign the agenda of regional education system. 2) Attract research centres and innovation and technological development companies. 3) Create new innovative companies. 4) Promote innovation in existing companies. 5) Increase the urban and cultural infrastructure. 6) Disseminate the new culture". Something quite like a scientific park, but care not just for helping globalization. To observe constraints, for example In the management of higher education facilities: "10 critical issues are" 1. Resource scarcity and affordability. 2. Performance measurement and accountability. 3. Customer service. 4. Information technology. 5. Developing the laboratory and classroom of the future. 6. Facility reinvestment and total cost of ownership. 7. Workforce issues. 8. Sustainability. 9. Energy resource management. 10. Safety, security and business continuity" (point of view of "first world class university").

A sort of diversity of offer of a vocational center could be like: "1) Basic Skills Education Programs 2) High School Completion Program 3) Associate Degree Program. 4) Opportunity Colleges 5) Baccalaureate and Graduate Degree Programs. 6) Skill Recognition Programs.7) Skill Development Programs. 8) Language Program. 9) Correspondence Courses. 10) Career Advisory and Counseling 12) Testing. 13) On the Job Training".

Spaces of Educations

Site Design of eductions facility care to: "1) Take advantage of your site’s natural resources: - optimize solar access & daylighting – use vegetation and earth formations. 2) Incorporate rainwater catchment systems and xeriscape landscaping to save water. 3) Retain and add site features to become educational resources in instructional programs. 4) Include outdoor teaching and interpretive areas. 5) Provide diverse natural environments for exploration. 6) Showcase local natural features. 7) Maximize opportunities of the pedestrian pathways from residential areas to the school. 8) Inform on environmental design features. 9) Develop the site to protects landscaping, ecosystems, and wildlife habitat. 10) Employ energy-saving strategies, renewable energy. 11) Develop on-site erosion control and stormwater management strategies. 12) Connect the school’s walkways and bike paths directly into greenways and sidewalks.13) Providing easy, safe pedestrian access to surrounding communities and mass transit 14) Allow shared recreational facilities".

Project design will look at: "1) Cost: – Consider rehabilitating an established site before choosing an undeveloped site. This also helps preserve undisturbed spaces. – Select a site that can maximize solar access for daylighting and other solar systems. – Consider the availability and cost of utilities. – Consider wind and solar resources and the potential for implementing renewable energy systems. – Analyze mass transit, bicycle routes, and other pedestrian options. 2) Environment: – Avoid sensitive ecosystems such as wildlife habitats and greenfields. – Consider geological, micro-ecological, and micro-climatic conditions. – Evaluate the potential implications of erosion control and rainwater management. – Determine the presence of historic landmarks or archeological features on the site. – Conduct an assessment of the impact the school will have on the local environment. – Consider the ability to protect and retain landscaping. 3) Health / Safety: – Determine the current and projected air, soil, and water quality. – Evaluate the physical relationships to industries or utilities that may pollute the air. – Evaluate typical noise levels. 4) Community – Work with community leaders to determine multiuse needs for the school buildings, since schools often serve as the center of the community for smaller towns. – Determine how the site will connect to the surrounding community through bike and pedestrian paths. – Evaluate the potential for recycling programs in the area. – Consider sites where local developers are interested in working together to integrate the school into the overall community design.

Education Facilities Architecture Planning

"Location is generally determined in response to the following factors. 1) Central to the installation and close to library facilities for convenience of students and staff. 2) Ready access from the main installation entrance for use by off-base personnel. 3) Close to accomodations of common transports. 4) Relatively quiet and uncontested area conducive to study. 5) Soil characteristics and drainage to allow economical construction and siting. 6) Sufficient real estate on site to permit buildings, parking, outdoor teaching areas related to vocational-training shops, access by service vehicles, and sufficient space for building expansion. 7) Proximity to existing or planned usable for functions 8) Proximity to dining facilities and other service facilities".

"In addition to the great variety of buildings, there is a changing pattern of learning. Whilst for some years, the traditional teacher-centric methods of learning will continue in some schools, with the introduction of new approaches to primary education, new methods of teaching-learning is gradually being adopted. A new pupil-centric method requires different types of school buildings and facilities. The problem facing the designer is to provide an environment in which the learning process can best be carried out. With the limited material and financial resources, cost limits must impose an exceedingly stringent discipline on both the designer and the educationist. Every square metre of the building must be used for as many hours of the day and days of the year as possible".

School facilities architecture "goals can include: - Reduce operating costs - Design buildings that teach - Improve academic performance - Protect the environment - Design for health, safety, and comfort - Support community values - Consider emerging solutions". "Topics of special interest are: 1) Site Design. 2) Daylighting & Windows. 3) Energy-Efficient Building Shell. 4) Lighting & Electrical Systems. 5) Mechanical & Ventilation Systems . 6) Renewable Energy Systems. 7) Water Conservation. 8) Recycling Systems & Waste Management. 8)Transportation. 9) Resource-Efficient Building Products". Other things the designer should consider:" 10) Hazard zone. 11) Climate changes. 12) Local building techniques and available materials. 13) Local sanitation & personal hygiene practices of peoples vary from place to place".

Special Places

"Youth Center facility may comprise up to 3 functional program areas. 1) School-Age Care. Commons is the heart of area, around which all other spaces generally revolve. It should accommodate social units of 12 to 15 youth gathering, while allowing these groups to interact with and feel part of the larger space. Subsets of the Commons include the Game Area, Snack Bar Eating Area, television (TV) viewing, and general gathering and conversation areas. 2) Activity Rooms: 2 categories with the same size - General Activity Rooms & - Special Activity Rooms. Both, depending on the size of the facility and its program needs. First for gatherings, club meetings, arts and crafts (with the addition of a sink), or for other general uses. This room accommodates up to 30 youth with the appropriate staff supervision. Second is designed for active functions such as dance or martial arts. As such, it may have a higher ceiling, different flooring, and features such as dance bars and mirrors. The room accommodates 10 to 15 youth with the appropriate staff supervision. This room is not intended for team sport activities. Now increasingly to add Homework/Computer room".

There are some 6 types of Libraries facilities: "1) Large, Medium, and Small General Libraries are depending upon the population. 2) Library may have the general library functions or may emphasize a specific technical function with specialized collections. They may have activities, children’s functions, and a formal staffing structure. Facilities are based on local conditions and identified requirements of the community served. 3) Branch Libraries offer a full range of materials and services. 4) Professional Libraries provide information relevant to tasks dedication may or may not have set operating hours. 5) Site Libraries would have collection of print and non-print materials issued to request. 6) Learning Resource Centers". Increasingly it is more to balance consistent places of use of this information and electronic supports, connected or not. Functional processes turn more important and places more with multipurpose appropriated facilities. "Libraries core functional areas are: 1) Public Services Areas 2 )Information Services Areas 3) Children’s Areas 4) Administration Areas 5) Technical Services Areas 6) Support Areas".

For a last (our) pray: stop wasting money and place overfilling libraries with fictions or non fiction that can well have second hand retail or free exchange ! Focus on the idea to support the ones whom one day could be grateful to handdle for free, the hard challenging book that changed their life.

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