main index

P00: frame around

P01: olicognography

P03: infrastructures

wayout:contact

Registers of application docs

build.check.

build.settl.

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Similar user docs

seism.build.

build.types

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Testing Techniques (nfm)

Required Information for Structural Evaluation

Non Destructive Testing Techniques

Schmidt hammer

Single flatjack

Double flatjack

In-plane shear

Modified shear test

Ultrasonic pulse

Mechanical pulse

Magnetic method

Visual

Material

Properties

Compressive strength (direct)



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Compressive strength (indirect)

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Deformability



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Joint shear strength




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Coulomb shear relationship





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Condition

voids between wythre






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cracks in outer wythes






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In-situ Stress


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material uniformity

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location of reinforcement








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Borehole Surveying Devices

Device

Measurement obtained

Primary Use

Spontaneous potential (SP)

Natural voltages betweens fluids in materials of dissimilar lithology

Differentiating between sands and clays

Single-point resistivity

Resistance of rock adjacent to hole

with SP log provides good indication of subsurface stratification and soil type

Multiple-point resistivity

Resistivity of formations

Determination of mud infiltration and effective porosity

Radiation logging

Gamma

natural gamma radiation of materials

identification of clay seams, location of radioactive tracers, with SP & resistivity logs provides information on relative porosity

Neutron

hydrogen atom concentration

determination of moisture content content and porosity belowzone of saturation porosity

Gamma-gamma

gamma radiation absoprtion

correlates with bulk density and useful to determine porosity if grain specific gravity is known

Sonic logging

Acoustic velocity

travel time of primary and shear wave velocities

with calipher and density logs determine dynamic elestic & shear moduli of in situ rock

Acoustic imagery

reflected acoustic energy

locate fractures, voids, strike, dip of joints, faults, bedding planes, etc.

Fluid logging

Temperature

Temperature gradient

Determine geothermal

Fluid resistivity

electrical resistance of borehole fluids

with temperature data the determination of disolved solids locate zones of waters loss or gain

Trace ejector

controlled ejection of trace elements

groundwater flow patterns

Fluid sampler

borehole or formation fluid from predetermined depths

uncontamined samples for waters quality studies

Visual logging

Borescope

visual image of sidewalls to depths of 30m or less, eriscopic tool

cheap, rapid examination of borehole walls

Borehole camera

photographs of 360 sweep at right angles to the wall, overlapped

Examination of borehole conditions, bedding, joints, etc.

Downhole camera

photographs of sidewalls takn from bottom of camera, several feet of hole

examination of borehole conditions, beldings, joints, etc.

Borehole television

image of the sidewalls displayed at the time of exposure on a surface monitor

rapid examination of borehole conditions as the device is lowered or raised

Miscellanous logging caliper

borehole size

washouts, fractures, etc. needed for interpretation of other logs

Borehole surveyor

downhole directional survey

precise location and attitude of features recorded on other logging tools

Effectiveness of Cavity Investigation Techniques

Cavity type

increased borings

geophysics

remote sensing

piezometers

pump - dye flow tests

discontinuity analysis

borehole cameras

mine record studies

Anhydrite Gypsum

poorly effective

not effective

poorly effective

not effective

not effective

effective

not effective

poorly effective

Karst

highly effective

very effective

very effective

poorly effective

effective

highly effective

highly effective

not effective

Salt

poorly effective

effective

effective

not effective

not effective

not effective

poorly effective

effective

Mines

very effective

very effective

very effective

not effective

not effective

not effective

highly effective

highly effective

Lava tubes

very effective

poorly effective

very effective

poorly effective

poorly effective

not effective

effective

not effective

Places of use docs

mechan.test

build.haz.

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