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P00: frame around

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Complexity in Projects

Basic Olicognograph: Complexity's Management

Care Complexities

"The interdisciplinary nature of Complexity theory can be readily understood since the fact that what exist in natural worlds are complex systems (fluids areas, ecosystems, weather), social worlds (organisations, markets, societies) and artificial worlds (technologies, institutions, languages). How to manage complexities ? - that is hard to understand, measure, conceive, should be consider in projects. We can well made a logical system of them but this can aste of time. Regarding the topic of technological innovation, 2 frames of reference are relevant: 1) Complexity can refer to interaction structures of components in a technological system, and 2) Complexity can refer to structure of interactions between agents in innovation networks. Complexity theory proves to be applicable in both domains. Observing all the simplifications that look like copmplex but are from the domain of definition of simple things. They are plenty; some receive care from the organization of industrial paradigm. These work well if most actors behave the same way, meanwhile managing their own range of complexity, thus not much with fixed models. Paradigms anyhow produce in the "remaining realities" more mistakes, biases and fallacies. Complex systems adapt, but are nevertheless distorted and go on being distorted, up to an uncomprehensive complexity, with unavoidable inertia ans so end of their time, as Gods' last Sunset."

After our (sefl) unit of maximum complexity; with sustainable perspective of management, be it biological as oneself, or one's family, or one's group ... the complex program would consider: "the integration of both the collective and individual dimension in a similar framework is the real challenge for cognitive economics. On computer simulated perspective ground. Actually, even if it is possible to model populations' dynamics with adaptive agents in an "Agent based Computational Economics" (ACE) framework, the conceptual and formal integration of the 2 dimensions within a significant and coherent analytical framework need more development. If we want to keep relations between analytical and ACE modelling, the connection between the 2 dimensions needs much integration in simple cases; such as the reference and departure points. Without such a reference, ACE will be widely disconnected from a more standard approach. Such a disconnection is a possible issue for modelling economic problems, where ACE would be a complete substitute for an analytical approach. The strategy suggested is to keep the connection between these 2 approaches and to use ACE as a complement of the analytical one, in particular to investigate complex dynamics linked with both social interactions and belief revisions. Unfortunately, cognitive economy, which provides powerful models separately in an epistemic and an evolutionary perspective, failed, at this time, to provide an integrated analytic framework of reference (2003 adapted from Phan)".

Qualify complexity management is not not easy. Since most are driven by determinism and are pretending to care about complexity but in fact will reduce strongly most. So there these ambitions worth the lack of complex of "simple minded deciders", already well equiped with all the needed dialectic to justify their criteria and make prevail their shortsighted points. By side of studies on complex mechanisms, there are forms of strange or simulated weird phenomena and formal expressions of modern organization that may have qualified them and put them into programs of simplification. Similarities and analogies are also tools coming to the rescue of simplified complexity. In fact formalism in complex realities will not wait much at producing any required model, even when the problem are more with de limits and pertinence, as of identification which make the model non impertinent or too inadapted: too absurdly sophisticated, undecidable, incomplete.

Complex mechanisms are common in humans realities but may have not yet been detected as complex. Also there are plenty of sophisticated models mispecified but enough looking like simulating complex behaviors. Sort of complexity that could be manageable and controled alike and theoretically, with 1) Perturbations (shaking the circumstances and observing behaviors and adaptive methods), 2) Synchronizations (not to engaged transformations before having identfied in the existing flows circumstances, opportune conditions that can help to compromise activities, programs), 4) Strange attractors processes, and so on.

Care complexities put also put emphasis on "evidence-based approaches. 3 pilars are: 1) Systems thinking and complexity science, which orient us to look at the whole and its relationships between parts and issues; 2) Participatory methods, which recognize that all the stakeholders have a contribution to make for a partial understanding and decision making about an issue; and 3) Knowledge management, exchange and implementation, which involves appreciating that there are many forms of knowledge and ways of knowing (diverse epistemologies). It provides enhanced methods for accessing knowledge realising that both volume and diversity are current barriers, and involves developing better understanding of how action occurs".

To recall that 'our' complex dual is the sort of dual where one part is almost simple, like an individual unit, goal or project or a concept, (already rather complex) and all other complex elements and elements conforming for example individual’s society. Another mathematical differentiate geometric picture could be the best satisfaction of one "thick" curvature, considering all other possible contrary curvatures crossing the first one. Saddle point or line where one curve is a minimum (a relative extremum) coinciding with the maximum (or minimum) of all other trajectory, functions of elements in a grid a bundle or other package. An image would be like a bridge of suspended ropes: the road is the one main curve; lateral hand supports are all other criteria.

One part of the complex dual can be subjective and the other one objective, or, switching conveniently one for all (considering actors) and all for one (considering aim). Intuitively, we think that this is more a meaningful optimum then Pareto’s criterion which is one lone maximum point also with other naked lone unique point concept (as fixed point theorema). Feasibility and utopia, subjectivity and objectivity follow the same principles of values and can be permuted (switched). Also, they are less easily isolated: many elements of the second part of complex dual are related to the environment.

Open Mind, Work Hard, Care Around, Do not Miss the Basic

You have, in practice systemical rapid methods of assessment to join with abilities to care about complexities. Also many forms, patterns byside side of practicals or concepts and terms by side of theories that can help. For example, in models pay attention to residual or remain, understand better what they are and could be reappreciated. Care of complexities can have much to do with the flexibility of methods, openess of mind, redesign of frames; reexamine criteria, consider discriminant qualities essential to configuration(s) so to adapt skills and reconsider dogmas, to produce and implement mainframes adaptable to situations. Sometimes it can be more efficient to wait and incorporate in the flows of cycles of activities or transformations, rather than force transformations too soon. Other situations can consist in implementing, with strength, then drive dynamically or paradoxically when having succeeded to move inertia. Plenty of managing strategies have been grounded on ideologies. The problem being with the difficulties to intent to redesign on supposedly better scientific grounds, but out the normative strength of paradigms, transforming reductive dynamics carried by private informal interests into more social frames.

Also it can consist to manage balances and displacements of equilibriums, out ideologies and between: planning, programming, commitment and opportunities. Planning can waste a lot if expansive, extensive and not robust. But ordered transformations barelly happen without planning. Programming may look like well when abilities to set processes for catching opportunities or applying plans, can care the details of what seems possible to drive toward strategies and goals. Large scale of programming can waste plenty of energy, ressources when not create scarcity with too much dispersed efforts, poor sense of synergy, no cooperation nor common positive purpose. Opportunities, if conceived as all what not well imagined, neither planned or programmed can nevertheless serve the effectiveness of transformations. Thre should not be only individual interests, many others should have some good use, so as to support positive results, set factors enhancing results, prepare transformations, prevent the development of 'advserse effects' which should not be ignored.

"Complexity requires to be able to communicate on a wide range of subjects, to professionals, general public, media of communication, pupils, politicians and business people. Communicate vision; understand how to manage information (right message to the right people using right means of communication and restart all again), face disinformation, rumour and gossip. Think to be one step ahead. Know soon about conflicts for resolution. Understand the dynamics of conflicts and how to achieve mutual agreement. Demonstrate ethics and good practice. Respect all parties. Tolerance for different people and perspectives. Have confidentiality and honesty. Listen actively any others. Working to formulate options and solutions"

It is always very difficult to make a good assessment of social projects. Because human societies imply paradoxical or contrary effects, diffusion, emergencies, sustainability, and democratic opinions. Positive democracy is not simple. Democratic criteria must provide a good part to the subjective assessment, and participation opportunities to different actors, whom should be consistent along time and manage the project throughout, giving good results to everyone. A community’s good results and best interest are reached when there are personal reasons for it. A difficulty of social project is to need at the same time managers enough altruists to give confidence to all the social parts and to care the complicated ways to give benefits to most of all, and compensations to others. This has the effect that most kinds of evaluation processes do not in fact respect the essence of social utility.

It is necessary to pay attention to the kinds of operations or programs. Some kinds need to be defined and detailed in a technical essential concepts. This depends on good particular professional practices. With really good and committed professionals, communities can tolerate the hard way if after all the social benefits are there. The problems with technocrats are that coherence is as important for top management as for different groups, and each does not necessarily have to share exactly the same goal of unity. It is for the community to find its coherence.

Now, concerning kinds of social programs, what can we call complicated operations?

  1. The ones that need multiple disciplines,
  2. Programs that mix different types of activities, intentions,
  3. Those that require social agreement,
  4. Others that imply a complicated structure of responsibilities, particular and general ones with complicated actors.

In the organization of tasks we can observe for example:

  1. Groups of complex tasks linked formally and informally
  2. The structure of responsibilities (global and particular) that apply in a scheme of 'abstract organization',
  3. Adaptation to qualities, capacities and defects of members and of teams.

Participation Indicators Measure to Involve in Complexity

"In theory of games cooperation is easily described: a mechanism in this context is given by a set of correlated strategies each one conditioned on the announcement of the players with regard to their observations. The corresponding payoff is the expectation generated by the original distribution of the chance move choosing a game and the observations resulting thereof. However, players may choose to misrepresent their type, so we have to consider incentive compatible mechanisms in the context of a bargaining situation with incomplete information".

"The most popular approaches to bargaining games are the axiomatic cooperative one due to Nash and the non-cooperative alternate offer model due to Rubinstein. Both approaches have been exposed to experimental tests. One of the fundamental difficulties in testing Nash's purely welfaristic model, in which only players' utilities determine the solution, lies in the fact that knowledge of the players' utilities is required. But these are not observable".

According to Maureen Hart, in social participation "a good indicator meets criteria, as:

  1. Multidimensionality: multidimensional measurements, linking elements from at least 2 of the3 categories of social, environmental and economic factors. Such as education, with an economic measurement. Another example of an indicator that preserves or creates environmental providing aesthetic and recreational opportunities for area residents.
  2. Long-term Focus: Indicators should have a focus of twenty to fifty years. This is in recognition that long-lasting, positive changes to of a community can take a long time to achieve. It recognizes that sustainability considers the fortunes of future generations, not just the needs of present those. Some cultures, consider the impact of decisions on next generations.
  3. Identification of Problems and Solutions: Instead of just identifying the problems that need to be corrected, effective indicators also need to identify solutions, situation that needs to be corrected and the actions that should be taken to correct it.
  4. Identification of Underlying Problems: Effective indicators seek to identify problems that may be causing other problems. Sustainable development theory is built on the recognition that the economy, environment and social well-being of a community are inextricably linked and interconnected. Problems in one area, or even successful efforts in one area, may cause unintended problems in another.
  5. Diversity: Indicators must measure progress toward meeting goals in terms of all community residents, including minorities. Sustainable development should seek to address the need of the traditionally disposed, not just the stakeholders and leaders.
  6. Amount of Resources Consumed and Impact of this Consumption: Effective indicators consider not only the amount of resources that are consumed but also the impact of this consumption.
  7. Easily Understandable: Since indicators are intended for use by all community residents, it is essential that they be written in such a way that they are straightforward and easy to understand. It is hard for people to endorse something they do not understand, and sustainable development requires widespread buy-in, involvement and commitment in order to be successful, locally.
  8. Responsive and Globally Responsible: Effective indicators are designed to address goals and vision at the local level. However, they should not improve the local environment, economy or social well-being at the expense of other communities, the region or the world.

In our olicognographic minded complexity opinion, proactive neutrality of alien aid workers in served communities, should be careful, like care with:

  • Management since a different relative economy (since turn easily an implicit counter-model for members of the community,
  • Keep in mind that community has hope and feasibility with its economic means (as well as few margins), not to distort it into an impossible illusion on what you, not them, will call it a sustainable economy, without the same rich means as yours.
  • Your criteria for being with this community is not much more than elementary ethics. More different is your original culture or more intrusive is your own national geopolitics, less you can speak without distorting local people.
  • Be prepared and able to support genuine community dynamics.
  • I do not feel correct to follow some specific geopolitics directly: your example and commitments will make people think that your essential ethical values can be fruitful,
  • The directness of some positive ways to conduct and specify kinds of policies may make members of the community think that you are pursuing your goals and not theirs so that they deserve payment and not the kind of participation you expect.

A neutral way to interfere consists of providing ambiguous lessons, a variety of options, good pieces of information on one side, and working appropriable frames, and allowing plenty of choices and practical criticism, without neglecting or ignoring any members of the community, so all members of the community can talk and make suggestions without feeling less important. Integrate, whatever are your convictions to be an expert and to have the truth.

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