main index

P00: frame around

P01: olicognography

P03: infrastructures




Graph Start

Core n
Half complex graph








Transports and Communications

Basic Olicognograph: Links Capitals

Communications at Distance

"Telecommunications infrastructure investments (coming stocks) are correlated with economic growth. Reverse causality implies that one needs to distinguish 2 effects: 1) the increase in economic growth which is attributable to increases in telecommunications infrastructure and services development and 2) the increase in the demand for telecommunication services which is attributable to increases in economic growth (i.e. the income elasticity of telecommunication demand)". "For OECD countries it is about 59% (on average). Critical mass in infrastructure investments corresponds to a 40% penetration rate (coined universal service, with approximativelly: 2-2.5 people per household. Analysis implies that the impact is twice as large for those countries that have achieved universal service. Marginal improvements in communication infrastructure in non-OECD countries generates small growth effects. These countries might only realize significant growth effects, if a relatively large improvement in communications infrastructure is undertaken".

Telecommunication investment matrix


Backhaul networks

Extending networks

Investments in new last-kilometre access for areas which lack wired connectivity. Also invest -ments in wireless technologies to reach users in areas without any connectivity.

Investments which roll out high- speed backbone capacity to areas without existing broadband capacity or highspeed network infrastructure.

Upgrading networks

Investments in next-generation access networks as replacements for wireless or copper-based networks.

Investments in higher-speed network infrastructure than presently available in an area. May involve installing fibre to replace wireless backhaul to support high-speed consumer or business access. It could also involve upgrading electronics on an existing fibre line.

Telecommunications networks investment observe private large firms efficient involvement. "Policy makers need to evaluate the costs and benefits of any public investment in telecommunication infrastructure and select projects which can deliver both strong immediate aggregate demand effects, such as through the employment created by rolling out the networks, and strong longer term aggregate supply-side effects, which can improve the productive capacity of the entire economy as an improved foundation for commerce and communication". "Telecommunication network infrastructure investments are good targets for economic stimulus action: 1) Some projects can be initiated quickly and require a significant amount of labour which increases employment. 2) Wired telecommunication investment, by its nature, is a local endeavour providing localised spending and stronger multiplier effects because of reduced leakages. 3). Extending telecommunication networks to un-served or underserved areas could have stronger marginal impacts on supply and productivity than simply upgrading previously established networks such as electricity, gas, water and transportation".

Real Transportation and Sustainability

"The transportation industry moves people and materials between predetermined points using 4 principal transportation modes: truck, train, vessel, and airplane. Pipelines for crude oil and refined petroleum products are one significant exception. Delivery to pipelines and local distribution from pipelines, however, is by truck, train or vessel. The majority of domestic cargo is bulk freight transported in tank trucks, rail tank cars, and ocean/sea tankers". "Common products transported are: petroleum products, coal, organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, compressed gases, fertilizers, pesticides, food products, paints, inks, glues, and soaps. Most truck, barge and ship tanks are in dedicated service (i.e., carries one commodity only). However, a significant number are non-dedicated and must be cleaned after every trip to prevent contamination of materials from one cargo to the next. Intermodal tank containers and intermediate bulk containers or “totes” are transportable containers that can be transferred between trucks, barges, ships and rail cars. They are used to transport liquid, solid or gaseous materials". "Common Types of Tanks: Truck, Land Rail, Intermodal Tank Carrier, Intermediate Bulk Container Barge, Land-Water Tanker, Water Combination Facilities.

"Tradeoff between pollution costs and transport costs, along with the non-convexity inherent in spatial models, results in multiple local optima. With negligible commuting costs, the optimal allocation has one industrial and one residential zone. As commuting costs increase, the number of zones of each type increases until an allocation is reached in which housing and industry are completely intermixed. The global optimal allocation is decentralized by imposing a tax per unit area of industrial land at a particular location equal to the total damage caused by the pollution from that unit area, evaluated at the global optimum. Location-specific Pigouvian taxes by themselves are inefficient"..

"Japan's Kyoto commitments on Transports: 1) Promote of new energy sources. 2) Reduce based society energy supply sector with the cooperation of shippers and distributors. 3) Promote improvement of distribution efficiency. 4) Promote environmentally friendly use of automobiles (anti-idling, eco-drive,etc.). 5) Expand and spread automobiles that meet top-runner standards (clean energy automobiles) . 6) Spread fuel-efficient automobiles. 7) Improve energy efficiency in railroad, shipping and aviation industries, etc. 8) Reduce running speed of large trucks . 9) Introduce anti-idling equipment . 10) Introduce sulfur-free fuel . 11) Promote use of public means of transportation (convenience, commuter traffic management, etc.) . 12) Build a system that facilities road traffic (adjust demand traffic).13) Promote Intelligent Transport Systems, etc.) . 14) Realize Environmentally Sustainable Transport (efforts in pioneering regions). 15) Build CO2-saving distribution systems. 16)Design CO2-saving transportation systems".

Ground Transportation

"Public way and storage area designations. 1) Highway. 2) Road. 3) Street. 4) Walks. Graded strips between buildings and other facilities adequately surfaced for all-weather use by pedestrians. 5) Open storage areas. designed for storing, servicing, and parking of organizational vehicles; or for parking 6) Hardstand. Paved portions of open storage areas excluding roadways or service traffic lanes".

"Highway designations: can be according to location: access, replacement, and installation; cross-section design: undivided and divided; or directional usage: one-way and two-way. 1) Access. 2) Replacement. 3) Installation. 4) Undivided. 5) Divided. 6) One-way. 7) Two-way. Installation highways are into four general classifications: 1) primary, 2) secondary, 3) tertiary, and 4) patrol roads".

"Roads Pavement Type: Rigid pavements or composite pavements with a rigid overlay are required for the following areas: 1) Vehicle Maintenance Areas. 2) Pavements for all Vehicles with Nonpneumatic Tires. 3) Open Storage Areas with Materials Having Nonpneumatic Loadings in Excess of 200 psi. 4) Covered Storage Areas. 5) Organizational Vehicle Parking Areas. 6) Pavements Supporting Tracked Vehicles. 7) Vehicle Wash Racks. 8) Vehicle Fueling Pads".

"Principal variables for technical specification of roads ways: 1) Vehicle wheel load or axle load. 2) Configuration of vehicle wheels or tracks. 3) Volume of traffic during the designed life of pavement. 4) Soil strength. 5) Modulus of rupture (flexural strength) for concrete pavements".

"Traffic categories are defined as follows : - Category I) Traffic composed primarily of passenger cars, panel and pickup trucks (group 1 vehicles), but containing not more than 1 percent two-axle trucks (group 2 vehicles). - Category II) Traffic composed primarily of passenger cars, panel and pickup trucks (group 1 vehicles), but may contain as much as 10 percent two-axle trucks (group 2 vehicles). No trucks having three or more axles (group 3 vehicles) are permitted in this category. - Category III) Traffic containing as much as 15 percent trucks, but with not more than 1 percent of the total traffic composed of trucks having three or more axles (group 3 vehicles). - Category IV) Traffic containing as much as 25 percent trucks, but with not more than 10 percent of the total traffic composed of trucks having three or more axles group 3 vehicles). Category IVA) Traffic containing more than 25 percent trucks".

Once main new Highways Roads Infrastructures built, common kinds of complementary projects with are: "1) Highway reconstruction/new construction. 2) Resurfacing, Restoration & Rehabilitation (2R/3R). 3) Resurfacing projects (1R). 4) Intersection or interchange reconstruction/new construction, 5) New bridge/bridge replacement. 6) Bridge rehabilitation projects: deck treatments, deck replacements, superstructure replacements, and general bridge rehabilitation. 7) Park and ride lots. 8) Rest Areas/Comfort stations. 9) Bicycle & pedestrian facilities. 10) Separate landscape development projects. 11) Fishing, boating, and hiking access. 12) Safety improvements (e.g. curve re-alignment, signal improvements). 13) Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Projects, 14) Signalization, signing and delineation projects. 15) Element-Specific Work. 16) Noise Walls. 16) Drainage projects.

Air and Sea Transport example of Infrastructures

"Airport Design Components are for example: 1) Location Plan / Project Site Plan, 2) Contractor Access, Storage, and Haul, 3) Routes, 4) Horizontal and Vertical Control, 5) Existing Topography, 6) Existing Utilities, 7) Demolition Plans, 8) Runway Geometry w/Key Elevations, 9)Taxiway Geometry w/Key Elevations, 10) Apron Geometry w/Key Elevations, 11)Typical Pavement Sections, 12) Phasing Plans, 13) Conceptual Drainage Plans, 14) Conceptual Grading Plans, 15) Conceptual Jointing Plan, 16) Joint/Sealant Detail, 17) Grounding Point Locations, 18) Mooring Point Locations, 19) Pavement Marking Plans, 20) Visual Navigation Aids Location, 21) Electronic Navigation Aids Location 22) Apron Lighting Plan, 23) Electric Vault Location, 24) Fire Suppression System Plan".

"Airport Facilities could be: 1) Air Traffic Control Operations and Instrument Flight Rules Control, Conference, Training, Projection, and Bunk Rooms 2) Private Offices 3) Open Offices, Lobbies, Ready Rooms and Waiting Areas , 4) Restrooms, Corridors, Computer and Electronic Equipment Rooms 5) Cargo and Materials Handling and Vehicle Areas, Mechanical, Electrical, and Generator Rooms, 6) Remote and Unattended Facilities".

"Railroads Design: The first step in designing a railroad: 1) Determine the type and volume of traffic to be handled. Traffic type and volume will generally govern the size and arrangement of terminal facilities, the number of auxiliary tracks required, and track structure design. 2) The traffic handling capability at an installation must cover existing and foreseeable requirements that usually include: - Mobilization outloading - Training exercises - Installation supply (routine traffic) - Once assembled, data on traffic volume and type should be reviewed and approved before proceeding with the design process".

"Railroad Traffic Type information gathered on traffic type should include: 1) Type of cargo to be handled. 2) Type and size of freight cars to be used. 3) Manner in which cargo will be loaded and unloaded. 4) Height and width of cargo (for clearance requirements) handled on open cars (flatcars and gondolas). 5) Special requirements or restrictions for loading, unloading, or moving the cargo (especially when handling hazardous cargo)".

"Potential Cargo: - Light wheel (0.25 tons - 2.5 tons)- Heavy wheel (5.0 tons - HET)- Light track - Heavy track - Engineer equipment (Wheel & track)- 40’ Container - 20’ Container - Petroleum Oil Liquids (bulk, palletized, containerized) - Explosive (palletized or containerized) - Miscellaneous breakbulk".

"Locomotive Tractive Effort: When designing a railroad route, it is necessary to know how much pulling force alocomotive is capable of exerting. This pulling force is known as tractive effort. Tractive effort is maximum at starting and diminishes as speed increases. 2) Locomotive tractive effort, along with the route gradient and curvature, will largely determine how many cars can be pulled over the route in a single train. From another perspective, locomotive tractive effort and minimum desired train size may determine the maximum grade and curvature tolerable on a given route. 3) Tractive Effort Data when hen not readily obtainable, the data can be estimated from the locomotive weight and engine horsepower rating.4) 6. Traffic and Terminals. Once the traffic handling requirements have been identified,the process of designing the terminal and support facilities can begin. The number and size (or length) of the required facilities and serving trackage is based on these traffic requirements".

"Harbor Port Environment Site Studies : 1) Water Levels and Datums 2) Waves 3) Currents (tidal, river, seiche, wave generated) 4) Shoreline Changes 5)Sediment movement or longshore drift 6) Type of bottom (soft or hard) 7) Water depths and water level fluctuations Harbor Port Site Design: 1) Turning Basin, Area Turning 2) Moorage or Anchorage Area 3) Basin and Breakwater Layout 4) Breakwater Design 5) Sand Bypassing 6) Sediment Budget and Channel Shoaling 7) Design Life 8) Level of Protection 9) Obstructions (sunken vessels, abandoned struc tures, etc.) 10) Entrance Channel and Structures 11) Channel Alignment , Width , Depth 12) Existing bridge crossings (location, type clearance) 13) Land Area, Environmental Siting Considerations 14) Road and Walkway System 15) Water Area, Wave and Surge Dissipators Bank Protection , River Protection , Current Deflector Placed Upstream, Shallow Basin Excavated into the Riverbank , Floating Wave Attenuators Harbor Port Engineering: 1) Dredging and Disposal 2) Design Vessel or Vessels Baseline Surveys 3) Siting 4) Jetties , Fairways 5) Slip and Berthing Arrangements , Berthing Craft 6) Aids to Navigation 7) Mooring Layouts, Fixed Versus Floating Pier System 8) Finger, Ramps, Launching Ramp or Hoist ,Launching Hoists, Elevators, and Ways 6) Boat Fueling Docks and Pump Out Stations 7) Dry Storage 8) Boat Repair 9) Harbor Administration, Harbor Service Facilities 10) Vehicular Parking, Parking Lot 11) Guest Docks 12) Space Requirements 13) Berthing Basins 14) Transient Housing Facilities, Locker Boxes and Fire Equipment 15) Hardware Supply Store".