Tourism Infrastructures and Ecologic Anthropy
Basic Olicognograph: Travel Sensations
"Tourism does offer an important alternative form of economic activity, it must be seen as only one component of a larger series of development initiatives within any economic system. That is not to say that tourism in selected circumstances cannot be the major source of income and jobs in a community or region, but rather that the impact and role of tourism will vary".
"International tourism can be interpreted as a channel of globalization, which reveals its fundamental characteristics: polarisation on a global scale and the historicity of spatial disparities. Tourism is also one of the possible trajectories for the integration of places into global sphere. Revealed and constructed by tourism, some places in the world have achieved a position in the global hierarchy. Tourism and heritage are often linked as show the correlations with Unesco's World heritage list and the number of international tourist visitors".
"The potential economic benefits of tourism development include: 1) Increased resources for the protection and conservation of natural and cultural heritage resources; 2) Increased income and improved standard of living from tourist expenditures; 3) Increased induced income from tourism expenditures; 4) New employment opportunities; 5) Increased community visibility leading to other economic development opportunities; 6) New induced employment opportunities; 7) Increased tax base; 8) Improved infrastructure and facilities; 9) Development of local handicrafts".
"Attract tourism revenues and investment in infrastructures is influenced by a complex number of characteristics, such as: 1) Political constraints and incentives (attractiveness of the taxation policies regarding local and foreign investment and imports); 2) The resources and conveniences offered (attractions, transportation, access, hospitality, medical and other services, pricing etc.); 3) Market characteristics (visitor tastes and preferences, disposable income, propensity to travel, proximity to destination etc.); 4) Political stability; 5) The ability of the destination to market and promote itself effectively".
"For planning and management purposes, transportation infrastructure in the region can be seen as comprising transports means: 1) International air services and international airports; 2) Domestic air services; 3) Land transport systems and routes; 4) Water transport".
"Tourism 'hardware' include: 1) Water supply, sewage, telecommunications, roads, power generation; 2) New and/or refurbished tourism accommodation (hotels, integrated resorts, guesthouses, and camping sites); 3) Specialized ethnic or regional restaurants as the expectations of tourists expand; 4) Transport facilities (airports, ports, harbours, road systems and car parks); 5) Transport vehicles (motor vehicles, ferries, other maritime vessels, aircraft, helicopters and bicycles); 6) Visitor attractions, natural attractions, cultural attractions and recreational facilities".
"The tourist area can be defined as a set of towns places and sites that are culminating points of/or stopovers on itineraries in loops formed by the movement of tourists. By highlighting these loops and the way in which they have appeared in places that give them meaning, according to the practices of the various stakeholders in tourism, it is possible to analyse the gradual structuring and dynamics of this area".
"Groups 3 kinds of services: 1) Primary tourist facilities and services (accommodation / hotels, restaurants and travel and tour services); 2) Secondary tourist facilities and services (shopping, recreation, entertainment and visitor information services); 3)Tertiary tourist facilities and services (health services and care, emergency and safety services, financial services and personal services)".
"Major constraints are such as: 1) Air transportation; 2) Basic infrastructure services; 3) Suitable accommodation facilities; 4) Recreational facilities (including secondary tourism); 5) Promotion and marketing; 6) Support services and industries".
Private Investments may be in: 1) Accommodation (from major hotels andintegrated resorts to small, modest and low-cost accommodation, and accommodation with indigenous communities); 2) Ancillary services (restaurants, bars, entertainment, shopping and transport); 3) Support services (travel brokering, visitor advice and professional services); 4)Tourism enterprises (diving, snorkelling, fishing, sailing and visits to historical sites".
To size the investment 3 parameters are needed: "1) Estimate of current visitation; 2) Estimate of expenditures per visitor; and 3) An input–output model to calculate the total effects. There are several potential biases with visitor intercept samples. For example with cross-sectional questionnaire, 2 biases are that those who visit recreation sites more frequently and those who stay longer are more likely to be sampled due to their extended presence".
Planning in tourism is also about momentum and event without heavy fixed infrastructures as in: "Arts and crafts festivals are common occurrences. These festivals, lasting for a day, a week end or a week, are a combination of art, entertainment, and concessions, and are often held outdoors along a seashore, riverfront, in a city park, or on a pedestrian mall. The artists at these festivals generate income by selling their works. The festivals themselves, though often non-profit, generate revenues through concession sales. The revenues cover the cost of opening and operating the festival. It is important that festivals of this nature operate in an efficient manner to cover their costs".
"Information for analysis of infrastructure ecological settlement, can include the following: 1) Geological Survey: topographic maps, geologic quadrangles, hydrologic atlases, surface water discharge records, groundwater availability maps and water quality data. 2) Soil conservation, soil survey maps. 3) Agricultural and Conservation Service: aerial photographs. 4) Environmental Service: wildlife habitats, and endangered and threatened species, recreation facilities and visitation. 5) Sea, climate and coastal services: climatic conditions and surveys. 6) Statistics and demographics: regional and local demographics. 7) on or off-post conditions".
"Off-post conditions include geographic location, regional and local transportation systems, local land use, regional and local socio-economic conditions, local laws and regulations, climate, and public and private sector recreation facilities and programs".
"On-post conditions include elements of both the natural and manmade environment such as geology, soils, topography, hydrology, vegetation, fish and wildlife, aesthetic qualities, archeological and historic sites, circulation, utilities, existing recreation facilities, pollution, and dangerous or hazardous areas".
The process could follow the principles:
"Principle 1: Define the local and regional approach in concrete terms. Start with an inventory of the state of play and a collective diagnosis to define the issues and a shared vision of the territory and the project. The local approach puts the principle into action, starting with the identification of the human resources concerned here and over there".
"Principle 2: Tap into the human resources Upstream, they are the source of knowledge (Southern and Northern expertise), the intercultural approach, exchanges, cooperation and partnerships. Downstream, they are the strategy’s beneficiaries: inhabitants, institutional and economic players, and consumers. They are naturally vital to the entire sustainable development process".
"Principle 3: Put sustainable development into practice at the local and global space (level), time (pace), cultural, social, economic and environmental considerations tie in with or overlap the considerations of the responsible tourism players industry wide".
"Principle 4: Consider all types of tourism objectively conventional, mass tourism and quality tourism could evolve, converge and improve their local and global sustainable development results. The cross-cutting nature of tourism facilitates the model value of voluntary engagements by the profession".
"Principle 5: Polish the model value This is vital to ownership in the territories and the pilot operations and beyond. Its tools are qualitative and quantitative evaluation, credibility and compelling examples and knowledge sharing through information and training. In all cases, exemplarity stems from a clear and pragmatic vision of the possible".
"Principle 6: Be pragmatic Defining the strategy means first and foremost to grasp the opportunities, be responsive and prioritise effectiveness. Pragmatism is the principle of common sense underlying the local and regional approach".
Green or Fair Tourism
"Potential costs of tourism include: 1) Seasonal (un)employment; 2) Low status/paying jobs; 3) Inflation; 4) Increased costs (land, housing, food and services); 5) Pollution and destruction; 6) Increased traffic/congestion; 7) Negative impacts on cultural and natural heritage resources (which could affect tourism revenue over time); 8) Increased crime and corruption; 9) Increased taxes; 10) Leakage of revenues and external domination; 11) Over-dependence on tourism as a prime economic activity".
Planning for Equity consider: - Advocacy Planning - Concern for disadvantaged communities - Planners as advocates on behalf of the poor and minorities - Primary stress on application of professional expertise - Process orientation Equity Planning - Planners as advocates and brokers for the poor - Strong emphasis on development of political support - Stress on practical results and “doable” efforts - Close connections to neighborhood political revolts - Product and process orientation
Empowerment / Community - Based Planning may observe: - Planners facilitate community action - Importance of local knowledge to balance expertise - Planning as iterative process - Close connections to community development process orientation.
Pro-poor tourism management:
Strategies focusing on economic benefits include: 1) Expansion of employment and local wages via commitments to local jobs, training up locals for employment. 2) Expansion of business opportunities for the poor. These may be businesses / entrepreneurs that sell inputs such as food, fuel, or building materials to tourism operations. Or 3) they may be businesses that offer products directly to tourists, such as guiding, crafts, tea shops etc. 4) Support can vary from marketing and technical support (e.g. by nearby mainstream operators), to shifts in procurement strategy, or direct financial and training inputs. 5) Development of collective community income. This may be from equity dividends, lease fee, revenue share, or donations, usually established in partnership with tourism operators or government institutions".
"Strategies to enhance other (non-cash) livelihood benefits generally focus on: 1) Capacity building, training and empowerment. 2) Mitigation of the environmental impact of tourism on the poor and management of competing demands for access to natural resources between tourism and local people. 3) Improved social and cultural impacts of tourism. 4) Improved access to services and infrastructure: health care, radio access, security, water supplies, transport".
"Strategies focused on policy, process, and participation can create: 1) More supportive policy and planning framework that enables participation by the poor. 2) Increased participation by the poor in decision-making: i.e. ensuring that local people are consulted and have a say in tourism decision making by government and the private sector . 3) Pro-poor partnerships with the private sector. 4) At the minimum: increased flow of information and communication: meetings, report backs, sharing news and plans. This is not participation but lays the basis for further dialogue".