Definitions (all: nfm)
- Cluster Housing: Consolidated residential development or smaller lots, with reduced road rights of way and building setbacks. The reduced area of private ownership is replaced by increased common green spaces for community uses.
- Comprehensive Plan: A document or documents setting forth policies for the future of a community. It is based upon existing physical, economic and social conditions, and a projection of future conditions.
- Easement: A legal interest in someone else’s land; a voluntary conveyance of certain rights to use of one’s land.
- Covenant: Also referred to as a deed restriction; a private control mechanism created by one person to restrict how another person may use his/her property. Restrictions by covenant may go beyond those imposed through zoning regulations.
- Restrictive Site Furniture: A general term referring to construction materials and elements included in a site development such as streetlights, benches, signs, trash receptacles, etc.
- Spot Zoning: Proposed amendments changing the application of a zoning ordinance to specific parcels or granting relief from its provisions to certain parcels.
- Sprawl: Uncontrolled growth spiraling outward from an urban center; usually displacing rural agricultural lands; often supported or stimulated by expanding highway networks.
- Subdivision and Development Regulations: Local ordinances regulating the conversion of a parcel of land into individual lots. The regulations specify standards for streets, utilities, and site design as well as procedures of public dedication of land for open space.
- Sustainable Design: Design that respects natural and cultural resources, minimizing destructive impacts by integrating human development without destroying or depleting those resources.
- Swale: A natural or constructed open drainage channel that is used to intercept and carry surface storm runoff.
- Transfer of Development Rights (TDR): A mechanism whereby sensitive areas may be preserved by allowing property owners to sell development rights to another to be used in areas defined as growth centers.
- Urban Growth Boundary (UGB): A legally defined line separating areas of development from areas designated for protection. A mechanism for growth management to prevent urban sprawl.
- Variance: An exemption from the application of a zoning requirement permitting a use that varies from that otherwise permitted under the zoning regulation.
- Zoning: Municipal or county legislation dividing jurisdictions into districts in order to regulate the use of land and thenature of construction within the districts established.
"A residential area may include: different building types (dwellings, blocks, stores, offices, schools, hospitals, hotels etc.), their access infrastructure (roads and streets, parking places, green spaces etc.) and also utilities infrastructure (water distribution system, sewage system, waste management, district heating, etc.)".
"Besides the elements listed above, a life cycle assessment at the settlement level should also take into account aspects related to the resident’s behaviour (water and energy consumption, domestic waste treatment, recycling percentage etc.) and site characteristics (transport distances, electricity production mix, district heating production mix, etc.). The settlement model can be structured in an object-oriented approach. Such a structure makes the comparison of alternatives easier, e.g. replacing a material with another, adding an equipment etc. All the objects defined by the same characteristics are grouped in classes".
"Objectives of site development are to: 1) Plan and provide adequate infrastructure; 2) Use residential building blocks to create neighborhood identity; 3) Orient buildings and paved surfaces to optimize solar control and minimize heat-islands; 4) Strengthen the neighborhood with efficient traffic patterns for vehicles and pedestrians; 5) Create a full range of private and shared recreational facilities; and 6) Use sustainable landscape design to minimize impact on the environment and reduce water consumption".
"Disadvantages of development in greenfields include: The promotion of urban sprawl and 'uncontrolled' land development A possible lack of available infrastructure, requiring the raising of public funds to support site improvements and utility extensions The potential compromising of environmentally sensitive areas such as wetlands or floodplains".
"Neighborhood and site design criteria consider: General criteria and Neighborhood development; Site Planning, Site Development, Site Density, Area Safety, Zonation, Legislations, Cultural Landscape"
Planning process can follow: "1) Site selection Assess risks from natural hazards Assess vulnerability of environment Identify surrounding settlements/activities Assess stability of ground/soil Assess access to water, sanitation, energy, transport Check land ownership and right to build Ensure location meets the tenant’s requirements".
"2) Project definition: Develop a project description, based on environmental, technical, economic, social and institutional conditions Select implementation approach (contractor or owner driven) Develop management tools, including an action plan (log-frame matrix), time schedule, budget and monitoring plan".
"3) Develop detailed site plan indicates houses, access roads, infrastructure and services, green, commercial, and religious areas Identify required disaster preparedness measures - Carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment Identify if any existing structures can be reused/integrated with the new buildings - Ensure compliance with zoning and other regulations - Explore expectations of future tenants Provide for green areas Maintain social context. Clarify what rights the residents will have (to sell, rent)" (follow in next part)".
Site engineering : Vehicular and pedestrian circulation in General, Roads and Streets, Curb, Gutter, and Sidewalk, Driveways, Pedestrian Circulation, Signage and Lighting; Parking, common and private Private. Traffic Rules, Neighborhood Cultures. Storm water management: General, Storm Water Runoff - Foundation Drains. Utilities: Meters and Meter Bases, Co-location of Utilities, Corrosion Control. Wastewaters issues. Solid Waste issues. Health Architecture. Financial & Property, Real Estate, Climate Architecture, Passive and active thermal disposals.
Previous list follows with home or type of home definition. Budget and individuals preferences should be taken into account (going on the numbering of previous list) :
"4) Main steps Recommendations: - Sustainable house design Select a house shape that suits the climate and culture, and that is earthquake, cyclone, and flood resistant - Choose building design and materials that are energy-efficient, environmentally appropriate, low-cost and practical - Select building components (supporting frame, foundation, floors, walls, roof) according to climate and ensure their earthquake, flood, and cyclone resistance - Make sure that materials used are sustainable (environmentally friendly, non-toxic, derived from sustainable sources, of good quality, and socially accepted) - Consider reuse or recycling of building material and temporary shelters - Design kitchens and stoves to ensure cultural acceptance, hygiene, smoke-less cooking, and safety".
"5). Sustainable services: Select an appropriate water supply and sanitation system Integrate a sustainable solid waste management system Select a sustainable power system that, to extent possible, uses renewable energy sources".
"6). Construction: Use monitoring & evaluation for control of materials use, environmental impact and workplace safety Perform quality control of materials and work - Ensure that construction waste is disposed properly - Maintain safe, healthy, and socially just working conditions - Store fuel and chemicals in contained areas to avoid leakage - Minimise transport as far as possible".
"7) Maintenance: Design the house for easy and self-evident care & maintenance - Ensure all materials can be worked/repaired locally - Fully test any and all systems (water, toilets, energy, waste disposal, cleaning, etc.) - Provide a checklist of regular actions needed (e.g., cleaning of storm water drains, vegetation control, cleaning of air conditioning units, etc.) - Provide in project plan and budget for instruction and training of house owner. Buffer zone: A buffer zone is a land area designated for safety purposes".
"Technical Sustainable Home Issues could be organized into five different categories: 1) Site Design and Planning, 2) Energy Use, 3) Water Management, 4) Materials, Resources, and Waste, 5) Indoor Environmental Quality". Sort of generic goals could be: "1) Reduce total building energy consumption and peak electrical demand. 2) Reduce air pollution, contributions to global warming, and ozone depletion caused by energy production. 3) Slow depletion of fossil fuel reserves. 4) Achieve energy cost and related savings due to upgrades to infrastructure".
Technique of home construction include: "Family housing size and feature standards: 1) Unit size benchmarks - Family Housing Size Standards - Unit Floor Area Calculation 2) Accessibility requirements: - Installation Requirements - Site Requirements - Construction Project Requirements - Renovation Project Requirements. 3) Unit design: - General - Shower and toilets areas - Bedrooms - Eating and cooking areas - Laundry Area - Living Room - Family Room - Interior Storage and Closets, Interior Finishes - Cabinets and Countertops. 4) Outdoor living areas: - General - Balconies -, Patios and Decks - Exterior Stairs. 5) Foundations: - General - Basements - Slabs-on-Grade or Crawl Spaces - Tornado Resistance. 6) Roof and attic construction. 7) Equipment construction: - General - Windows - Wall Framing - Exterior Doors - Main Entry - Garages or Carports - Exterior Storage - Trash Enclosure - Energetic & Wastes treatment options".
Transition is about from individual homes to systemic improvements of services in residential areas. Private home, mansion type, tending to individual solutions of equipment together with some networks, may not be the greener solutions for social residencies because the increasing costs of such urban expension and lack of ecological efficiency. But this may still have some social purpose when supporting with sustainable activities or historical demonstrative "homes".
"Building systems: 1) Structural Issues - Loads and Foundations - Hazard Architecture. 2) Utilities: General - Metering - Lighting - Telecommunication Systems. 3) Water systems: - General - Water Supply Cutoff - Exterior Hose Bibs - Domestic Hot Water - 4) Sanitary sewer: General - Condensate and Overflow Drains. 5) Gas distribution: General - Metering. 6) Electrical distribution: General - Service Panel - Metering - Heating. 7) Ventilating and air conditioning (hvac): General - Air Conditioning - Temperature Control - Ventilation. Some items may be repeated or be approach by different ways has for eating by electrica or steam solutions. It is turning now essential these systems be scaled and receive a good 'wholistic' solutions for good energetic savings".
Fire and life safety in residential or office buildings, pay special attention to: " Flame-Spread - Smoke-Developed Indices - Automatic Sprinklers - Fire-Resistant Separation - Carbon Monoxide (CO) Alarm - Fire-Retardant-Treated (FRT) Plywood". Other home health & safety issues are: " Asbestos - Lead-Based Paint - Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) - Radon, Freon and Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - Termiticides - Mold - Sound attenuation: Air-Borne Sound or Structure-Borne Sound".
Energy and water conservation : General, Energy Performance, Energy Qualified Home Inspections, Energy Conservation, Building Products and Appliances, Insulation. Water conservation and landscaping: General, Plants, Boundaries, Irrigation. Sustainability.
Public recreational facilities and Site amenities care: - "General - Support Facilities - Housing Management Offices - Community Centers - Housing Maintenance Facilities - Self-Help Centers - Buffer zones - Hazard Zonation - Social Equipment".
Kyoto's prescriptions: CO2-saving in households . Spread Home Energy Management Systems HEMS) Improve energy conservation capability of houses. This for well known virtuous Japanese home. List may be well extended, in other countries.