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P01: olicognography

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Registers of application docs

westwinds

windenergycosts

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turbin.failures

Similar user docs

uswinds

airpollution

*text*

renew.ener.costs

Wind Energy

Wind electric generator dimensions

Safir - Simpson Tropical Cyclones Scale

Windmills field ( n = 23)

mid 90' costs actualized 2009

category

wind max speed km/hour

minimum pressure

tempest:/ storm tide

relative cost dammageM$

average wind turbine

40

rotor diameter

1

119

> 980

1 - 1.7

1

turbine

kW

900

40

tower height

2

154

* - 965

* - 2.6

10

production

GWh/year

2.74

500

nominal power

3

178

* - 945

* - 3.8

50

turbine & erec.

US$2009

717391

50

total weight

4

210

* - 920

* - 5.6

250

civil engineering

US$2009

130435

5178618

cost estimated (US$2009)

5

> 249

< 920

> 5.6

500

electric engineering

US$2009

117391

1450

produc/year MWh






network connection

US$2009

78261

40

weight/surface






total investment

US$2009

1043478

1.16

produc/ surface covered MWh









West Africa wind speed time average proportion distribution (years 50')

Beaufort Scale


4 - 5

5 - 6

6 - 7m/sec

> 7m/sec

n

phenomenas

m/sec

km/h

Mauritania

0.125

0.13

0.1

0.135

0

Calm, smoke rises vertically

0.2

< 1

Senegal

0.14

0.15

0.06

0.04

1

Wind inclines smoke but does not turn weather waves

0.3 to 1.5

1 to 5

Mali

0.12

0.95

0.06

0.055

2

Wind is felt on the face, leaves rustles weather vannes obey to wind

. to 3.3

6 to 11

BurkinaFaso

0.09

0.055

0.025

0.015

3

Leaves & small branches in continuous movment. Wind agitates light flag

. to 5.4

12 to 19

Niger

0.15

0.08

0.05

0.04

4

Wind lifts dust and paper sheets, small branches are stirring

. to 7.9

20 to 28

windmills



5

Small leafy trees begin to balance, crest wavelets form on pounds

. to 10.7

29 to 38


Rotor height

meters

Recovered power Kw



6

Large branches move, electric wires vibrates, difficult to use umbrella

. to 13.8

39 to 49

Open groundfield

5

5



7

Trees are fully agitated, unpleasant to walk face to wind

. to 17.1

50 to 61

Open groundfield

10

10



8

Small branches break, difficult to walk

. to 20.7

62 to 74

Open groundfield

20

18



9

High material damages occur

. to 24.4

75 to 88

Open sea

10

40



10

Rarely inland, trees uprooted, considerable material damages

To 28.4

89 to 102

Open sea

10

1.4







Places of use docs

climatearchitecture

energysources

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hydrotimes