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Registers of application docs

energ.contain.

energ.units

citydevelop.

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Similar user docs

geotherm.plant

windenerg.

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Primary Energies

Sources of Primary Energy

Areas Used / Systems Energy

Energy Cost Production


thermal eficiency


m2 /GWh 30years


US$/kWh

energy efficiency

production

non renewable

atomic

common technical device

Coal

3700

solar photo-voltaic

0.45 - 0.7

up to 0.26


uranium


Solar Thermal

1600

geothermal

0.062-0.076



deuterium. torium

0.32-0.34


Photovoltaic

3250

wind

0.061-0.084

up to 0.5


fossiles

Wind

1350

solar thermal

0.199 - 0.281



mineral coal

0.5- 0.7

va por

Geothermal

400

ocean wave, tide


40 - 70kW/m


gas

0.15 -0.35

0.55

Energetic power

MJ/kh

Energy Consumption Landmarks

oil

comb.int: 0.25-0.35

Water dam high100m

0.001



0.2 Wc

2 - 10Wc

50 - 150 Wc

oil

diesel: 0.35-0.47


bagasse

10

micropower

0 - 500 cm2

500cm2 - 0.2 m2

> 0.5 m2

& lignin



wood

15

incorporated solar cell modules

1.5 - 6V

6 - 12V

12 - 24V

renewable

solar

0.1-0.25

sugar

17

small amorph lithium modulus

4 - 12V



photovoltaic

0.07-0.11

methanol

22


hand calculator

tools equipuement

house insuation

hydroelectric

0.7-0.9

coal

23-29


emergency alarm

small electrification

solar plant

energy of tides & waves


ethanol

30





ocean (various)


LPG

34

Energy equivalent House Construction

wind

0.3-0.45


butanol

36

human physical

kWh

0.37

geothermal


biodiesel

38

gasoil

kWh/l

11.50

vegetal origin

oil

42

brick

kWh/m2

284.00

biomass

wood

0.1-0.15

gasoholE10

44

concrete block

kWh/m2

110.00

thermal

solar

0.10-0.25

gasoline

45

compacted earth

kWh/m2

55.00

vapor turbine

0.25-0.38


diesel

48

straw earth

kWh/m2

8.00

Choose a Fuel

methane

55

Ratio Energy sources Capacity / production


conversion Btu/l

energetic efficiency

hydrogen

120

energy

year rate

energy

year rate

1. kerosen burner

(34.87 to 36.1) 10E3


fission uranium

9.00E+04

geothermic

0.93

hydraulic

0.19

2. residency

(36.1 to 37.25) 10E3

0.65 - 0.85

fusion hydrogen (theoretical)

3.00E+05

biomass

0.8

nuclear

0.91

4. industry

(37.75 to 39.1) 10E3


Helium links energy (theoretical)

6.75E+05

wind

0.33

coal

0.76

6. industry II

(39.9 to 41.2) 10E3


Einstein mass equivalent energy (theoretical)

8.99E+07

solar

0.27

fuel/gas

0.19

Incandescent bulb heat


3.4 x watts installed

Antimatter energy (theoretical)

1.80E+08





fluorescent light tube hea



10Ex is 10 exponent x






Common Fuels Chemical Contains


MJ/kg

C

H

O

SO2

nitrogen

atom H/C

ashes

Natural gas

49

69

23.5

1.5

0.3

5.7

4 - 3

0

Oil

44

88

8.2

0.5

3

0.1

< 2

0.2

Bitumen

41






1.6


Lignin

19

6

4

4

1

1

1

28

Best Coal

36

6

4

4

1

1

< 1

28

Coal

26 - 34

6

4

4

1

1

< 0.8

28

Wood

13.3 - 22

52

6

25

0.3

15

1.4

1.7

Co-generation systems

Common Energy Sources Emissions


electric device

Heat device

loss

return

kg / MWh

nitrites oxides

sulphur dioxide

carbon dioxide

particles

traditional

37


63

0.37

carbon

1.95

4.713

993.8

1.0

gas turbine





average total carbon

3.35

6.713


9.2

< 20E3 kW

27

48

25

0.75

oil

1.81

5.443

758.4


(20 - 80)E3 kW

32

49

19

0.81

natural gas

1.34

0.100

549.8

0.1

(80 - 150)E3 kW

35

52

13

0.87

geoterm flash


0.159

27.2


gas. tur.& post comb.

17

69

14

0.86

geoterm binar.





engine < 5E3 kW

35

30

35

0.65

geoterm geyser.

0.00

0.000

40.3

traces

engine (5- 10)E3 kW

40

30

30

0.7


Solar thermal systems

Engine (10 - 15)E3 kW

45

30

25

75


concentration

temperature

efficienty

100 units / thermal units





solar

of operation

year

Generation of investment electricity costs reduction by learning




sun

(C)

(%)

UDS 1990 actualized 2009 / kW

1990

2005est

2050



electric

80

350

10-14

coal advanced

17622

16141

14418



power tower

800

560

15-20

combined gas cycle

8010

6177

4272



Plates / oven

3000

800

24-28

new nuclear

27768

23658

19224




hydrib powerratio elect energ / thermal energy

wind

14952

10734

6408




hybrid car

> 1

solar thermal

30972

22002

12816




gas turbine

0.5.1

solar photovoltaic

54468

32664

10680




vapor turb.

0.1 - 0.5

Photovoltaic system Components


solar panel

booster

pump

tank

regulater unload

battery

DC/AC convertor

receptor

along Sun

+

+

+

+





with storage

+




+

+

+

+

autonomous hybrid

+




+

+

+

+

network connection

+






+

distributor

Places of use docs

biofuels

energ.consumpt.

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