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OLICOGNOGRAPHY on SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURES

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Energy, Power Plants and Distribution Sites

Basic Olicognograph: Energy System

Whatever you do or are: Energy

Energy can be a difficult concept to understand. Unlike matter, energy cannot be taken hold of or placed. We know the nature and characteristics of energy best because of the effects it has on objects. Any material object has an energy at least as matter equivalent. Inner one because the potential of degradation of its components. May be this could be seen as its time's energy. An outer one by the movements of amounts in the space. Forces are observed by heterogenous dispersion of amounts (matter or charges) and more or less easy to degrade parts (often links) or whole into energy. Force support potential energies. There are basically 4 forces at work. 2 forces are in our natural world are easilly phenomenologic, 1) Electromagnetic force carried by electric moving charges and, 2) Gravitational force supported by mass with inertia energy by movement.

Energy observes balance and few discrete equilibria. Overall, any transformations involving any object, or amount of particles (material component) and environment, transfert energies in equilibrated ways: not creating neither disappearing energy. But, since transformations are oriented and spontaneoulsy tending to degradation, the easiness to use energy for matter's transformations or conversions of energy are hardly efficient. Plenty of energy is released to the environment and all is hard to catch. Out any systemic devices to make transformations efficient you can think that a first evidence that energetic conversion is like 1/6 to 1/4 of total energy input, at each transition. Well controlled the surroundings with devices and insulation you may reach 1/3 to 2/3. Highly experimental devices or industrial processes may look like better (up to 9/10) but the extend of chains they needed to reach that is often missed.

As the extend chains or webs of energy, all along the natural or artifical manipulations and transformation from the original fuel, to the last heat waste environment, release all forms of energetic transformations. Energy is declined under many forms, including mechanical, heat, electrical, magnetic, sound, chemical, and nuclear. Although these forms appear to be different from each other, they often have much in common and can generally be transformed into one another (at some energetic cost). Heat is like a last form of energetic transfer mainly put into the environment, "fueling" temperature parameter. Other parameters of these being volume and pressure. Other concepts is chemical reactivity. Electromagnetic issues, electricity production have more complicated to imagine concepts: less easy to catch, but with analogies in formulation with mass and gravitation. More naturally occasional: lightening, electrochemical degradation, static electricity, bioelectric discharges, etc.

Earth's a great supplier in gross amounts is Sun. Byside of fundamental forces and energetic issues, the Sun diffuse energy since thermonuclear reactions. Underground, core Earth was also release energy (geothermal) and plenty other things. On Sun's supply Atmosphere catches, absorbs, limits, reflects, send back. The plant processing to conver energy to carbons frames from carbon dioxid as structural biomolecules is made by the chlorophylla of plants. Over hundred to millions of years on Earth, fuels have derived from plants degrations catchments, as hydrocarbons molecules as in coal, oil, gas and so on. This as been made during geologic times in huge amounts and has very (very) low rate of cycling for that these fuels are said to be not renewable forms of energy. Forms of fuels or other sources of energies more directly related to short rates (but often not enough), compared to human anthropic exubereant waste of ressources, are called renewable forms of energy. Non renewable forms of energies when burned are producing carbon dioxin. Combustions may be incomplete and release carbon monoxid, gas of small hydrocarbon molecules are even lost (methane) while still fuel. Other impurities burning produce air pollution from nitrous oxides or sulphur oxides.

Conversions to energy of use or secondary produced energies and consumption are also quite heat wastefull. Commonly the major form (more pivotal stream rather than upstream source) is electricity, then often at end user reconverted. As a result of all these transformations, to really catch what all that is in thermodynamics terms makes very complex grids of energetic conversion, gas, smokes, fumes, world geographic transports, of fuels, products, inputs in any productions; with only energetic purpose or indirect chemistry ones and so on. So plenty of by products and effects that are now questioning the sustainability of our models of anthropization, based since centuries on uncareful energetic practices. Embodied energy is the quantity of energy required to acquire primary material, manufacture handle and transport to the point of use a product, material or service.

Whoever you are, whatever you do: Energy

All our history has something to do with the control of some enegetic power: humans' one for servile agriculture (slavery and animal domestication ), wood ( and serfdom with provoqued big forest fires), watercourses mills and and wood water flowed down, wind-mills winds (for grains floors or water pull up) and wars (mercantilism), trade colonialism and imperialism (with slavery in mines or exotic agriculture). Then modern energetic revolutions under industrial development: oil for light, coal for steam, gas for light, steam for electricity, oil for light engines or electric plants. Joining plenty of other basic innovations.

Trend of degradation or disorder, second principle of thermodynamics after the law of conversation, since operating in subsystems close one to others are able to catch something of any release because open sub-systems, when not to eat it or suck it. This explains at the same time complex systems emergence: accumulating what have been released around to succeed to establish and maintain locally a metabolism at the expense of an overall higher disorder". So: energetic issues in foods, nutrition, fatness or diets, and so on. Energetic consumption makes physical training. Energetic savings in body's insulation, home climate architecture, home energetic improvements, public transports, local organic productions and consumption, small cars, shared cars, energy-heat-cooling green preserving devices, reforestation, change of values, change of profiles of consumption, care to switch of the lights, convert to photosolar equipment, etc.

Green industries are now trying to work from any approaches and perspectives: production, consumption and cooperation. Recycling economics is for reviewing the meaning of waste. Renewable energy resources capture their energy from natural energy sources, such as sunlight, wind, and hydropower, biogas, and geothermal heat that are self-replenishing. Despite the global adjective, you should care more for the overall process. Making the engine or the device have also costs in pollution: large hydroelectric dams are not zero green house gases effects. Photovoltaic cells needs plenty of energy to be made. Many people do not like the aesthetic of wind turbines in their backyard. Do not let your boy recycle your mahogany furniture before time.

"A typical power generating system usually consists of a diverse mix of generators with varying capacities, reliability characteristics and costs. Because electricity cannot be stored, the particular set of units used to supply power at any given time depends upon the magnitude of the demand and the availability of the generators. The electric utility companies solve the problem of providing power from electricity-generating units to widely scattered demand points through a three-tiered system. Elements of this system are: power generation system, transmission system and distribution system. In the power generation system, electric power is produced from a number of different types of generating units of varying capacities and sizes. Transmission systems carry large amounts of power for a long distance at a high voltage level. From the transmission sources, distribution systems carry the load to a service area by forming a fine network".

energyplants

Efforts are made, technologies are coming, what about cooling speeding things ?

"Analysis reveal that global energy inequalities were modestly reduced in the seventies, as semi-peripheral nations increased their consumption of modern energy resources. However, an intensification of inequalities reasserted itself in the eighties and nineties, as the semi-periphery lost ground in relation to resurgent consumption in core nations. An increasingly bounded energy system, geopolitical, commercial, and social tensions will rise if fundamental inequalities in energy consumption are not addressed. In the short and medium terms, the precise architecture of the industrial world’s electricity system remains hazy. Yet in the long term, it seems quite clearly headed toward a new configuration, rooted in a triad of solid trends: miniaturization, decentralization and the “greening” of power generation".

To change habits it is to see how technological systems change: "Industry is motivated by :1) Cost reduction; 2) Improved operational reliability and control; 3) Improved product quality; 4) Reduced waste stream; 5) Ability to increase production without requiring additional, and possibly constrained, energy supply; 6) Avoidance of capital expenditures through greater utilization of existing equipment assets; 7) Recognition as a “green company”; and 8) Access to investor capital through demonstration of effective management practices".

So an: "Industrial energy efficiency framework could include: 1) Target-setting agreements, 2) Energy management standards, 3) System optimization training and tools, 4) Capacity building to create system optimization experts, 5) System Optimization Library to document and sustain energy efficiency gains, 6) Tax incentives and recognition, 7) Standardized system optimization methodologies, 8) Certification of energy efficiency projects for trading energy efficiency credits".

Things go technological, for example, to combined forms of electric generation to have the best of both system (and less of their inconvenient, but it can be harder: "Thermal Efficiency (Boiler) 1) Electric-only generation: - Separate heat and power (SHP) - Overall Efficiency of separate heat and power (SHP). 2) Total Combined Heat Power System (CHP System): - Efficiency FERC Efficiency Standard - Effective Electrical Efficiency (or Fuel Utilization Efficiency, FUE). 3) Percent Fuel Savings"

Households also are concerned and have wholistic perspective: "Low incomes Energy Savings (households): 1) Appliance times, 2) Air-sealing, (blower, ...) 3) CFL, 4) Lighting Fixtures, compact fluorescent bulds 5) Torchieres, 6) Thermostat, Central AC replacement 7) Heat pump tune up, 8) Insulation (side-wall, attic...), 9) Window (utility specific), 10) Refrigerator/freezer ,11) Waterbed Insulation ,12) Water saving measures".

Trying to combined the advantage of small is beautiful, large is not always wasteful, renewal is not always perfect, large scale monoculture for biofuels is far from zero impact on biodiversity & none on local groups' nutrition. Balance scale small & medium, multiples combinations of energy productions and close or distant consumption, is turning complicated.

Kyoto's prescriptions on Energy: 1) Promote integrated introduction of new energy sources and energy flexibility Improve efficiency of equipment that meets top-runner standards 2)Steadily promote non CO2 producing power generation 3) Promote shift to natural gas 4)Promote effective use of oil and LP gas, 5) Promote introduction of new energy sources, 6)Reduce CO2 emission factor in the electric field, 7) Realize a hydrogen-based society CO2-saving in the energy supply sector, 8) Effective use of unused energy sources,etc. (energy generated from temperature difference, heat from snow and ice, heat from waste incineration, etc.), 9) Energy flexibility among multiple sources (companies,sharing exhaust heat from factories in industrial complexes) 10) Promote environmentally improved energy 11) Build network of dispersed new energy sources 12) Promote the use of biomass 13) Use of Energy (Energy Conservation Law), 15) Green Distribution Partnership Meeting, etc.) 16)Promote improvement of distribution efficiency (modal shift, improve efficiency of trucking,etc.) 17) Promote integrated introduction of new energy sources and energy flexibility 18) Promote CO2-saving measures with the cooperation of shippers and distributors (revising the Law Concerning the Rational Use of Energy (Energy Conservation Law), 19)Promote improvement of distribution efficiency (modal shift, improve efficiency of trucking,etc.), 20) Build CO2-saving distribution systems.

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