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P00: frame around

P01: olicognography

P03: infrastructures

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OLICOGNOGRAPHY on DEMOCRATIC ECONOMY

System

Engineering

Development

Scale

Health

Social

Impact Analysis (Environmental) & Local Democracy

Basic Olicognograph: Toxicity Approach

Effects

For social impact we have a more inductive view which put first the participation processes; and olicognography provides with tools if progressively designed with the community, representative or assemblies made with the communities. Of course there are cultural ways to practice and implement participative methods. Cultures have hard approaches that can take advantages of local intermediates, but these may be not so fairly neutral (or positive or negative), if the constraint of projects management and structures or agencies promoting projects are higher and too framed by their own traditions habits and customs of report.

Statistics criteria for the assessment of observations, since they may inspire cardinality of observations of effects:

  1. We might say that whenever 5 or more of the 20 observations are convincing confirming observations of linearity (no more than 2 percent calculated difference) we will conclude that the linear model is confirmed, otherwise it is not confirmed.
  2. We might say that whenever 5 or more of the 20 observations are convincing confirming observations of non-linearity (at least 15 percent calculated difference) we will conclude that a model of a counter-example of the linear model is confirmed, otherwise it is not confirmed.
  3. We might say that whenever 5 or more of the 20 observations are not convincing confirming observations of linearity (more than 2 percent calculated difference) we will conclude that the linear model is disconfirmed,otherwise it is not disconfirmed.
  4. We might say that whenever 5 or more of the 20 observations are not convincing confirming observations of non-linearity (less than 15 percent calculated difference) we will conclude that a counter-example of the linear model is disconfirmed, otherwise it is not disconfirmed.

Existing documentation and adaptable analytical frames are often available in plenty of places of developing worlds, because of the densities of students in anthropology or any sort of humanitarian tourists. But this does not prevent any to remake local reviews (biased by superior reductions), draw drafts working documents (not culturally genuine), shape handy documents of synthesis, use rapid assement methods and so on. Formalized methods are also better used like when supporting local initiatives in smart microeconomical processes as the distribution studies to local thinkers or people really in charge, rather than granting usual 'profiled standart students'.

Why not pay a real study to local politician, assisted by professionals ? - to help her / him think in an unsual way, for her / him and her / his fellow citizens to hear her / him sincerilly but unusually. The aim is to socialize more the analysis and social studies of impact; to begnin the perspective (out toughness) which is needed to inflex prejudgments, and democratic care, which has cultural expressions but need better cultural schemes and frames of transcultural translations for caring essence of basic rights together with fairly understood duties.

With the analysis of adverse environmental effects any project is almost always ecologically negative. Impact analysis has to review all definitions of effects and the relations between them. In a system or model of impact and our sort of intermediacy, we can use different predictive economics of ecologic methods. Any assessment , because of complexity, will see partial and mixed effects with some bias. Some appraisal will tend to qualitative assessment, but they may not be universal and different groups can can see same things in different ways and put different values. Effects often do not vary linearly, they cross buffers, have threshold effects, can accelerate, percolate, erratically diffuse or propagate effects unexpectedly. These effects can the values and importance of quantitative effects. For example pollution impact will vary according kinds of ecosystems, concentrations, pathways of diffusion and other characteristics. There are plenty of different effects with dilution, concentration, renewal, sustainability, resiliencies able to change the meaning of the same gross anticipated effects and this is not always easy to take into account in legal norms.

There are classifications of effects. Common gauges may or may not exist, even when considering live beings: there are foodwebs, and concentrations accross, diversities of environmental stability, not well known chronic effects. The sort of algebra between categories may have different meanings, away from simple operations, because there are reactions and transformations, synergies, threshold, buffers and regulating antagonisms or varying saturations of them. Use some witness indicators may not be as easy as we can think it. Considering social characteristics to try to extract utilities from any sort of ressources and by the defect, to be conducted, more divided and partial interests. Add to the fact that not everyone has the same field or space of concern, time's horizon and other sorts of preferences, or easy access to systems of objection, and as plaintif.

Environmental valuation is an important instrument, if not the only one, for making decisions. "Economics Indicators underlines the following qualities: 1) Transparency: the results are justified by explicit theoretical assumptions and by long accepted methodologies and processes; 2) Objectiveness: the values are as objective as possible; the unit of measure (money) should be warranted; 3) Comparability: the monetary measure allows comparisons between actions that variously affect different aspects of social welfare".

Practically process of assessment of impact has to consider:

  • Standarts of impact, mitigations measures, principles of precautions,
  • Relative weights, especially to human groups and natural different types of environments,
  • Methods respect to participation, transparency and power of discrimination in the priorities of effects and/cares,
  • Way to peg and express values on impacts and the sort of (simplifying ?) algebra they could support,
  • What is lawfull, etc.

For Example of Gross Macro Indicators (with Legal Source as left column) as used in European Legislation on Pollutions:

Entry to Europe's standart parameters Classification of Pollutant

EEA

Air quality (tropospheric ozone)

SO

Dose-response (ExternE)

EED

Air quality (tropospheric ozone - acidification)

SO

Dose-response (ExternE)

EECO

Air quality

CO, benzene

Dose-response (ExternE)

EECC

Air quality (climate changes)

CO

Cost analysis

EEPVC

Waste management

PVC

Dose-response

SEPHS- 2000

Water quality

PHSs

Multiple

SESN - 2000

Air quality

SO

Cost analysis

EEPAH- 2000

Air quality

PAHs

Dose-response

EEHM

Air quality

Arsenic, cadmium, nickel, mercury

Cost analysis, Risk analysis

EESCC- 2001

Air quality (climate changes)

All greenhouse gases

Cost analysis

A

Acidification, eutrophication, tropospheric ozone

PM; NH

Dose-response

B

Wildlife, woodlands, wetlands, sensitive areas, moor lands, watercourses, agricultural landscapes, endangered species

-

Mostly contingent valuation (from survey)

C

Human health, air quality, noise

Chemicals (lead, cadmium, dioxins, atropine), PM

Mostly demand -curve. Methods (from survey)

CC

Air quality (climate changes)

CO

Dose-response

S

Arable land

Soil erosion

Loss of productivity

O

Air quality

ozone SO

Avoided deaths from skin cancer

WM

Waste

Management: incineration with and without WTE, composting, recycling

Demand-curve methods (from survey) life cycle analysis

W

Water

NO

Mostly contingent valuation (from survey)

Sometimes you may have local configurations, values and acceptance different from imported methods. Not necesarilly inconsistent with local sustainability, especially human. But this has to consider that today populations' effects by immigration - emigration can vary fast, affect more brutally native people, people without good other options for living.

Apply

Comparisons allowed by general comprehensive common methods pretend, more or less, to be scientific and miss much of reality. Subjective values are direct, like cultural, or historical, scenic or indirect but "objective" if via 'willingness to pay'. With more global grounded values, the difficulties can come from the lack of adaptations of frames proposed by 'experts' including about essential identity. Observe that exist locally laws of common or oral rights cared by previous concepts of law but increasingly miscared by bureaucrats of aids. There is also either an inflation of redoing ecological studies or of others sort of same paid studies; either too reverence to kinds of 'very necessary expertise, when not waiting for proper 'foreign' experts, without caring that what have been done can have some use to help to cope with situations. Invariably too there the conclusion of many studies if not all is that 'more studies are needed to be really scientific', or to the contrary if the conclusions are the locally there is not the capacity to cope (especially when the study was about the capacity of the local political frames to manage.

It is also to observe that many processes pretending to be democratic can be biased by local interests and / or may have the support from central authorities corrupted by ignorance. Realities' fields, even from the standpoint of view of a neutral but acid partner look like full vicious circles. Observing that have good local presence, does not mean that the way things are done by "neutral impartial" from outside cannot be biased neither unfaithful. Objectivelly there have been enough dispersions from globalization that even someone well locally oriented, could be surprised by the difficulty to apply a liable framework of a situation, or by the way some experts turn clumsy when without big backing from strong authorities.

As an example, byside of electric industry to try to make it more environmentally sensitive, as an example, Ferrey listed the following techniques: "1) System Benefits Charge/Renewable Trust Fund (a “tax or surcharge mechanism for collecting funds from electric consumers, the proceeds of which could then support a range of [environmentally-friendly] activities”); 2) Renewable resource portfolio requirements; 3) Siting reviews of new generation capacity (to interject an environmental component in siting reviews); 4) “Green” electricity pricing; 5) Promotional ratemaking policies (including, for example, net metering); 6) Emission trading; 7) Emission taxes; 8) “Cleancos” (stand-alone companies promoting the commercialization of environmental technologies); and 9) Efficiency standards".

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