main index

P00: frame around

P01: olicognography

P03: infrastructures

wayout:contact

User

You?
Use?
Perspective?
Usage?
Concern

Graph Start

Core n
Half complex graph

OLICOGNOGRAPHY on SOCIAL INFRASTRUCTURES

System

Engineering

Development

Scale

Health

Social

Networks Distributions and Information Grids

Basic Olicognograph: articulate productive sectors

Past Networks since a Pole (and with one compulsion: centralize)

For tenth of thousands of years humans settlements were structured according the networks of nature, not enough to turn omni-impotent, just appropriate places, adapted to their means for living, refuging. Where to hidde their weakness and nakedness and where they could join their strength for cheating with natural surroudings and catch small priviledges with their understanding. By side of a river or a shore, near some high trees or caves. And the supporting networks was hydrological cycles: climate between oceans and ground earth, mountains, rivers and seas.

Networks turned their habits, after their selves and food haulages, pathways, transports. Their times was the present. The seasons turned of concern when agriculture issues set the moments. Expectations for manipulating or speculate on gods started theological times. At first probably for good seasons and soon more systematic out of seasons or during agrarian crisis when gods, seemingly, were expecting for sacrifices. Some kind of human taxes still very seen so as sacrifice by most taxpayers.

Materialist abstract time started, may be with storage capacities, giving some time ahead and/or the opportunity for putting taxes on goods. But rats multiplied too. Contrary fluctuations, ways of life needs' provisions (like strawberries at mid-winter or mid-summer dream for spring exuberence) and crisis, gave momentum to long or short life networks. The formers to make safety, provision, authority. The others were for gathering, catching, covering, collect, retaliate or invade. More systematization and the first infrastructures started the great history of humans' explotations. Cavalery, but waterpoints and trade roads between human settlements, in galoping steppes. Fortification, foot soldiers, slaves, roads, pipes, networks and messangers in sedentary but invading empires. From a major town nearby a river, not too hard to protect if smaller. Harbors, trade seaways, coasts and piracy to conquer of the seas, and God there to justify anything (God: our victim).

Most dependings nevertheless on the advantages of environments conditionning the networks and structuring the anthropic space and increasingly re-engineering the natural ones, up to deserts. Being the largest as possible concentration of humans the best ressource of means for building an empire. For maintaining enough time the control of returns, the end misery of the networks: mercantilism. The one of merchants for selling their cargo. The one of the king to achieve his reign: a time's chunk for a short forever kingdom. The one of slavery cultivating in the fields of the empire. The ones of dominions on 'onions with blood'. It has not been hard to imagine "perfect exact hierarchical tree(s)" : an oriented graph, since a center (the top), some sublevels of decisions (the priviledged by delegation) and the mass (dependent "dear" subjects: do not move my rationality!).

Last, thanks to the discoveries of huge concentrations of energetic fuels inscribing smoothly in previous networks and creating more modern ones, often managed by monopolies of power, oligopolies unifying interests: coal (portable), gas (bottle or pipe-able), oil (containable), electricity (line-able then grid-able), etc. and all convertible. More natural water so ubiquous, adquired more qualities observed diversity if networking: portable (drinkable beer), pipe-able (potable water and waste water), containable (tanks or meanwhile treatments), and so on.

Form deterministic networks carrying only one fluid or using just one transport, in the occidental modern "emergence", to the formal revision of the way networks could be established and developped have been delayed, during almost 2 centuries. Exhaustion of large ressources and large concentrations, revolution of information, urgent needs either for better governance, either for wise sustainable development, either for a different globalization, point toward a better understanding of multiple valued logics and for honnest multiple network management.

New Networks why?

Today's network still keep plenty of traditions, one product of services at a time to allow speculation. Material or almost virtual grid, mix of it, network fluids and oriented flows. Less concentrations of sources, multiple origin of sources, more interactivity. Inthe future many grids will not change "revolutionnary" frameworks, but will not have to be seen the same ways at least stay with the same specification. Even electric grids will have to adapt, plenty of final nodes able to turn at different times consumers or producers and not just only with a one side switch and some central batteries. Alternating current waste, when feasable direct current will be and option, supraconducting lines have started, grids of distribution may have to be geographically redesigned for the plurality of sources and conversions.

With intangibles supports, wireless or optic communications, information; logics of center of grids ignoring the periphery or forcing its systems of command make that new kinds of laws framing networks are emerging and will have to feed the ways of governance. Rather than help the means of anomy like war, drugs traffic, financial piracy and so on. Economics of networks, not so new, even if able to loose itself in the complexities of mixtures and diversities or amount of information for "being sure to be scientific", will nevertheless have to review its basics and turn suggestive in human affairs and, even, criticize the economic models previously "definitivelly demon-strands"."Network models are good approximations of many social and even economic environments. From the most intuitive networks of human relations, as friendship and cooperation (many of which are however hardly recordable), to diplomatic, trade or research agreements between countries or firms".

"Models of network formation have been proposed since 2 decades. Physicists have proposed stochastic processes that build graphs with some of the desired properties. Economists have built games' theoretical setups whose stylized equilibria are examples of social networks. Humanization will have to consider the complexity of everyone and the simplicity of some options of common governance. They will find, no doubt, theories in models. "A small world is a (large) graph with both local clustering and, on average, short distances between nodes". "Distance between two nodes as the shortest path between them (infinity if they are not connected), and the diameter as the maximum value of distance for all possible couples". "Short distances promote accessibility, while local clustering and redundancy of edges, as some research suggests, promotes robustness to disconnection and, through multiple independent pathways, reliable accessibility as well". "A network will obey the small world effect if its distance grows less than the logarithm of the number of nodes (which is the asymptotic limit in a random graph)"." For paths to transmit materials and information via network traversal, a small world also requires navigability". "Networks of strong ties impose constraints on how many links an individual node may possess: loosely defined, they occupy a significant portion of the limited time and energy budget".

"Transport in complex networks is a problem of much interest in many aspects of biology, sociology and other disciplines. For example, the study of metabolic fluxes in organisms is crucial for understanding of how the cell carries its metabolic cycles" - we propose a town's model of metabolims - "The use of metabolic flux analysis can provide important cellular physiological characteristics by using the network stoichiometry and predict optimal flux distributions that satisfy a defined metabolic objective. Similarly, information flow between the molecules of a biological network provides insight for both the network structure and the functions performed by the network. Such an example is the concept of the ‘‘diffusion distance’’ in a protein–protein interaction network which is used to predict possible interactions between proteins, simply by studying diffusion in the existing network".

"In food webs, energy transfer between different levels of the web is crucial for the organism survival, whereas spreading of a disease between different organisms may affect the regular operation of the equilibrated system. Moreover, applications of transport in complex networks extend to a plethora of other systems, such as, for instance, transport of information in the Internet, spreading of diseases and/or rumors in social networks, etc.". "Despite its significance, the laws of transport in such a complex substrate are yet unclear compared with transport in random media. This is due to the complexity added by the heterogeneous degree distribution in such networks".

Information concentration of course, is how many things are emerging, we hope as knowledge. Or where the true knowledge already evidenced, will pour to the extremities, interacting with an environment that increasingly need to let Nature breathes or where we shall adapt fast for not staying trapped by our Titanic of mad geopolitics and smart academic researchers obsessed by having the ear (and the fundings) of dictators, deciders or leaders of drivers of "we the people".

Types of Knowledge


Local

Systemic

Specific

One isolated part of one

technological system.

Many interactive parts of

one technological system.

Generic

One isolated part relevant

to many technological systems.

Many interactive parts relevant to many technological systems.

Ontology for giving social material purpose to Networked Infrastructure Project

"An ontology is an explicit specification of a conceptualization where definitions associate concepts, taxonomies, and relationships with human - readable (or 'visual') text and formal, machine-readable axioms. An ontology expresses, for a particular domain, the set of terms, entities, objects, classes and the relationships between them, and provides formal definitions and axioms that constrain the interpretation of these terms. By making explicit the implicit definitions and relations of classes, objects, and entities, ontology engineering contributes to knowledge sharing and reuse. An ontology permits a rich variety of structural and nonstructural relationships, such as generalization, inheritance, aggregation, and instantiation".

As an example of ontology of management of a system of knowledge: allowed network (the frame has been defined for proprietary use, in brackets our socialization): Shared ontological commitments by users and systems guarantee consistency. 1) Community: of users and processes engaged in a collaboration that necessitates sharing distributed resources. (differenciate between various, by processes of interactions from users that consult to producers or arbitrate, what in the system) 2) Policy Statements: defining the community policy or policies regarding members’ access. (stay as open source and essential as possible) 3) Resources: A list of resources that members may access. (prefer processes that they cannot use) 4) Privileges: A list of privileges assigned to members or group of members (look like the need for a moral comittee of supervision of what are doing providers and should not restrain) 5) Member list (prefer set of criteria and rules of good practices, to incorporate to users queries or recall as reminders to providers). 6) Group - within the community to which the member has been assigned if groups exist for this community (let them choose but filter aleatorilly, for transparency). 7) Certificate Authority The designated person to notify when a new member needs a certificate. (make it more a process of maintenance) 8) Community Administrator The designated member of the community who administers the member list and assigns privileges to individual members and groups (prefer sponteneous leaders by importance and utility of, knowledgeable, contribution )".

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