Processes of Accumulation and Capitalism(s)
Processes of accumulation should not be seen narrowed by money's resources and tighten policies of focused accumulation; making so things more rigid. Like with property right in set over any register as with labor force (when slavery of same sort of contract), machines (meanwhile disqualifying stakeolder participations) or knowledge technologies (with patents on others inventions). We have a dynamics view on capital as a blurred shared shadow between individual and collective levels (of the 3 sorts of anthropologic registers above mentioned). With a complex perspective on accumulations, capitalizations in a broad sense have plenty of ambiguous and paradoxical importance and may follow different patterns. Money if overflexible (or volatil), universal speculative ambition cannot gauge value in an good way: whatever the theory on best intermediate goals. Neither can that be done in the shortest pathways of profits of lazy reducers as stackholders, even when most will not publically recognize that money is not their main goal.
Accumulation can be seen as coming from mixtures of opportunate combinations of knowledge, means of production and humans management. All with variable qualities and quantities, correlated to expressions of value (or anticipated information transition, better called the ecological economics of the balance of neguentropies and entropy. Thus to seek enough anchor in real economy. Finance or the management of values have a complex meanings, as should have the construction of sets of time(s) and the emergence of sustainabilities. In a broad sense the satisfaction to have done it well and able to give good to every ones. For so not to segregate social categories at primary levels but to combine, mixe and integrate. Considering at least 2 levels: 1) the structured microscope(s) and 2) the essential integrity of the mesoscope (commonly human beings). Formally with calculable development of mathematical patterns in dimensions, degrees, numbers of variables or parameters, realistic constrains, superior (moral) criteria. Add to that the inclusion of wise ideas on the management of residues, delegations between actors (or better democracy), then you can shape a model (s) and seek 'shadow technical coefficients'.
Capitalization or processes of accumulation must also be seen with potential risks of regression: balances are playing and adverses effects can emerge, they should be cared, prevented as soon as noticed them and when still at sizable scales of mitigation. See that material accumulation of transformed elements by an industrial paradigm or biased toward humans' interests are often at the expense of primary producers: so never fully restorable renewable resources, and that only because wished. Any transformation has thermodynamic costs and happen often with low energetic efficiency (something like of 1/3 is already very good). Some thermal devices can seem to reach more but often understimating life costs and costs introduced by sophistication or nonworked delays. If quantities may be not so hard to cope and amounts of raw material transformations have already many thermal data and unitary estimations to estimate their technological efficiency, but finance at immediate short term is not so easy to account. Plenty of some may look like better and 'scarcity' is often a good incentive for making suggestions and impulse savings, care of environment, hence a source of wise satisfaction if not of happyness or wealth.
Qualities, properties or categories , induced, emerged can be difficult to manage. Virtual or not virtual (intangible or tangible) qualities are never alone: they have supports, environment, circumstances. They imply materials use, costs and waste. They qualify quantities but may have also too virtual support, producing indirectly physical effects: nothing less wastefull than the diet of a gold medal athlete or say like humans' interests and speculative compulsions. These intangibles or amenities can make humans capable of much destruction for very miserable profit. The processes of transformations that serve our projects and practical management of qualities can be contradictory, paradoxical, unexpected , etc.
The traditional views on processes of accumulations have designed economical systems and often confused them with property rights and forced selective distributions of wealth. We are not to detail debates that are still not been solved in peaceful ways. Only to intent to add some ambiguities which we see as essential, and major limits in present perspectives on capitalism, socialism or whatever the ideology. Observe the margins that non disturbed human communities in natural environments have often wiselly set, balanced with social group's respect, ways-of-life and sustainable relations with environment(s). When with modern social paradigms it seems that many patterns of development have been conceived to affect the flexibility of opportune management of anthropization. A proper process of anthropization or human transformation has an open mind and imagine flexible combinations of humans, tools and existing (physical or material) matter with means of transformations as knowledge is to care. We can somehow, detail seriously what sequences of technological revolutions and fluctuating combinations asobserved in "economics cycles" have worked well to up-date the dynamics of transformations and accumulations for a profitl margin accumulated over times periods. But this alone does not determine much of the future of social groups.
Indeed we have the ability to pick around more energy, especially over millions of years of accumulated reserves of raw material, or steal the ones of neighbours, without letting them the possibility of reactions like by killing them during civil wars always well armoured may. For sure looks like a "sustainable way" since preserving one "civilization" and may seems to prepare it "to bounce back" with less demographic pressure. If the ressources of those sorts of "models" seem to have been, at least officially disqualified, they have still many discrete mechanisms to prepare that. So, today are we ? with honnestly qualified means, properly accumulating capital ? and despite first hopes of global society of information, 2 decades ago. Does the World looks like a bit tired ? - in our opinion because many mistakes about the concept(s) of information have been made. Now past mistakes of ideologies have been to take the roles of social groups too rigidly categorized or classified and supposedly not caring ambiguities or having been unconscious of the needs for mathematical saddle patterns balanced.
Saddle pattern - contradictory forms? that is a manifold expression of complex mathematical programming where a path looks like in our concept of complex programming with an extrema like on one line suspended by a counter extrema of a series on the other dimensions (imagine a suspended ropebridge). Example of applications in processes of development, accumulation or growth:
- Property rights can take better sense as a mean to care a place allowing to be flexible and qualifying social utility,
- Accumulation of means of production for those whom have the capacity to have the best use, to match the social utility of as many people as possible, concerned by process,
- Organization of work that socially distribute enough, empower operators, requires all levels; does not affect too much the potential of evolution, future generation utility nor the motivations for good involvement, etc.
Rigidities come from many dogmatic specialists, being them owners of the means of production (traditional capitalists), pretending to be their the common knowledge (modern capitalists) or masters of the will of their people (socialist "dear leaders"). [have a look at the olicognograph associated to these comments].
Development or Regressive Progress ?
Self-sustainable societies, not alienated by others in their genuine perspective, variety of different staples caring and managing like: 1) Sunny-solar, generally through agriculture and others means of extraction, 2) Natural resources (natural rents at a sustainable rates of substitution and renewable ones, respecting reasonable rates or renewal), 3) Human resources (expecting good developments of their skills and abilities). With mechanisms that can be summarized as: 1) capital accumulation (including dynamic of concentration of shared and cooperative means), 2) flexibilities in the assignation of capital and finance (not systematically missing social utility opportunities), 3) willingness of systemic intensification of derived uses of resources (for all perspectives: technological, human and ecological sustainability).
Complexity can be seen as the inescapable large "gasp" (are “gaps” still a modern concept of development ?) between simplified human practices, scientific contingencies and emergence of human conditions. Humans face many complex issues and tend to develop systems of representation, where you will generally meet basic rules of society; common to any humanity but within a great variety of forms, reasons, and sciences. Artificial complexity accumulates contradictions and gaps or distorsions, missed produced effects and affects. Societies evolve historically, scientifically, socially but also try to answer to increasing complex contradictions. Explanations intent to assume previous representations. Historical percolations and constructions diffuse at all scales, levels and stages, and may become practical complements; not just ideological abstracts.
Practical issues relevant to processes of accumulation when processing projects are:
- Accumulated resources by savings (and microfinance management).
- Transient sets of working combinations producing utilities, using knowledge; be them human, tools, equipments or intermediate goods or methods and knowledge.
- Variable efficiencies of matching, cooperations, synergies to establish, enhancements, ordering for some while productive sequences, variables flows and variables frames of accumulation.
- Concepts, periods and conditions of returns on investments, variety of life periods of utility, obsolescence, capacity of absorption (ability to create beneficial margin) and appropriate and fair competition,
- Complications of fuzzyness, blurredness, necessary complex reality, to take into account, "exhuberant bubbles of rationality". To control when speculativelly isolated in their "posh pseudo cladistic extractions" at the expense of real economy. So it is to care for initiatives that can promote fair opportunities of social virtuous utilities. Rather than cleaning the space and paving the way to crimes and anomic economics habilities.
Projects' processes should focus views on some economically coherent units, for example an effective regional economy, to intensify processes of spatial economy. Social actors should forsee any "sweet opportunities" of social entrepreneurship for individual"; to built and fill processes of sustainable accumulation in their different supportive forms. Somehow the period of a project's process is not so much to be developped as planned by outside view, as in a theoretical report; but like a small scale simulation with some constraints inspired by highest sustainable (reasonably practical) ones (whatever your last virtual speculation or Reason of your Belief). Realistic experiments should be enough suggestive in their real difficulties and positive lessons, so as to imagine how to approach uncertainties, extend some reproductions, get on supporting enhancements and produce processes of wise accumulation (which may not be "material". Not only made of artificial transformations for materialist capitalist accumulation of past means of production.
Practically, for some traditional landmarks, Durlauf, Johnson & Temple made a systematic review of econometrics measures of development (growth of national economics and their variables), for the last decades of the twentieth century. For some variables that may concern infrastructures: Capital account liberalization (+, significant); Corruption (-, significant); School Primary Level (vary, not significant); School Secondary Level (vary , significancy vary); Proportion of Engineering Students (+, significant); Growth rate (+, significancy vary), Foreign Direct Investment (+, not significant); Fraction of mining in GDP (+, significant); Disease Ecology (vary, significancy vary); Land locked (-, significant); Length of Coastline (length) (+, significant); Arable land (+, significant); Rainfall (+, significant); Variance of Rainfall (-, significant); Maximum Temperature (-, significant); Consumption growth (+, not significant); Level of Consumption (generally -, generally significant); Investment (may be not +, significancy vary); Non investing Expenditures ( -, significancy vary); Military Expenditures (-, significant); Military Expenditures under threat (+, significant); Various Government Taxes of the G-7 Countries (+, significant); Growth Rate in the Previous Period (+, not significant); Life expectancy (+, significant); Percentage of Small and Medium Enterprises (+, significancy vary); Industrial Structure ease of entry and exit (+, significant); Infrastructure Proxies (+, significant); Investment Ratio (+, significancy vary); Equipment or Fixed Capital (generally +, significant); Non-Equipment Investment (+, significant); Productivity Growth (+, significant); Productivity Quality (+, significant) Labor Force Part. Rate (+, significant); External Transfers (mixed, not significant); Improvement in Terms of Trade (+, significant); Price Distortions on Investment Price (-, significant); Social “Infrastructure” (+, significant); Social capital (+, significant); Social Capability (+, significant).
Accumulation of Knowledge or Learning
Any project or develoment, especially of infrastructures is somehow social so also process learning. Learning effects help to intensify effects. So potentially to be seen on average, costs curves of times dynamic series. "Like passing by 1) An intangible warrant that all the required knowledge for a process of transformations will meet its targerts, 2) Start, more or less soon but somehow progressively then accelerae, 3) Reach a peak, at best taking account of necessary overheaded package of knowledge required by processes of transformations, knowing more means able to do less, if effectively engaged), 4) Processes of systematization or rationalization making often what is called in traditional economics, the learning process of first times of exploitation (and cleaning social delivery: like giving the lessons, but caring not to mistake them), 5) Slower processes of learning meeting the enforcement of essential goals, secondary effects and adjustments". Learning curves happen also because complexities are better understood and cared and solved. Also there are densities and concentration effects when there is socially share (so as in Marshalian industrial districts with historic habits). Profitable mixtures of doing, know how, learning by doing and systemic studies on methods, way of working, devices, disposals and practice. Devices, procedures, protocols all try to catch and fix complexities to take advantage: inattention, then/either Attention, then/either Question, then/either Inattention.
It is to give knowledgeable social importance to variety of pathways and diversity, even when curves of change look like the same. "The notion of optimality is often invoked informally in the literature on metacognitive control. A formulation of the optimization problem shows that optimal time allocation strategies depend critically on certain characteristics of the learning environment; such as the extent of time pressure and the nature of the uptake (and going up ?) functions. When the learning curve is concave, optimality requires that items at lower levels of starting competence could be allocated greater time. On the other hand, with logistic learning curves, optimal allocations vary with time availability in complex and surprising ways. Hence there are conditions under which optimal strategies will be intuitive and easy to learn and others in which they will be considerably more complicated. Therefore to address the question of whether and when learners should be able to exercise good metacognitive control in practice".
"Converting-process could be articulated in 4 phases : 1) Socialization tends to learning as knowledge transfer from one agent to another, sharing and creating tacit knowledge through direct experience (tacit to tacit knowledge); 2) Externalisation tends to learning as the capability to produce new relevant pieces of knowledge, articulating tacit knowledge through dialogue and reflection (tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge); 3) Combination tends to set learning as knowledge improvement, systemizing and applying explicit knowledge and information (tacit plus explicit knowledge into new knowledge); 4) Internalisation tends to make learning as absorption capability, acquiring new tacit knowledge in practice (explicit knowledge to tacit knowledge, but also absorption of tacit knowledge from outside)".
"Social learning systems: 1) Engagement means doing things together, everyday routine; - imagination gives creating an imagine of yourself and your community, self-consciousness; 2) alignment gives sharing experience with other that can contribute with their efforts - “learning at the boundaries” 3) “identity”. Wenger finds three dimensions of the boundary effects: - coordination helps discriminate what is really useful to the organization; 4) transparency helps make easier the access to the boundaries; 5) negotiability helps find an equilibrium between the powers of the actors involved".
Knowledge in Functioning Sharing Systems Not a Deep Sink neither a Sleepy think. "Cooperative process of knowledge creation can observe: 1) Heterogeneity of people in their state of knowledge is essential for successful cooperation in the joint creation of new ideas, while 2) The very process of cooperative knowledge creation affects the heterogeneity of people through the accumulation of knowledge in common. Featuring myopic agents in a pure externality model of interaction. In a two person case, shown equilibrium process tending to result in the accumulation of too much knowledge in common compared to the most productive state. Unlike the two-person case, in the four person case it have been shown that the equilibrium process of knowledge creation may converge to the most productive state". Meanwhile may be what can miss too theoretical studies are the models on knowing and lying or ignoring or making fallacies or pretending to make arts true sciences.
Learning and knowledge processes, cannot be seen absolute, stable and anyhow positive. Even when a corpus of science looks like supporting that. Managing it properly, insteat of caring too much the means of authority and reproduction of priviledges, is essential. "Considering 2 periods overlapping generations economy in which individual work in both periods and acquire skills when young through both learning-by-doing and formal education. The unique saddle-path stable steady state of an economy shows that individuals spend too much (too little) time in formal education when the economy is dynamically inefficient (efficient). Overeducation is, linked to overaccumulation of physical capital. The social planner decentralize the golden rule by issuing public debt when the laissez-faire economy is dynamically inefficient (efficient). Overeducation is, therefore, linked to over-accumulation of physical capital. The social planner can decentralise the golden rule by issuing public debt when the laissez-faire economy is dynamically inefficient; there is no room for education policy in the absence of social externalities in the process of skill acquisition".
Look around Real Information Environment Contained, Know to Call and Remind. In a (Bayesian) learning dynamic, each player starts with a prior belief on the relevant data (the “state of the world”), which usually includes the game being played and the other players’ types and (repeated-game) strategies. Learning dynamics require high levels of rationality. Indeed, repeated-game strategies are complex objects; even more so are beliefs (i.e., probability distributions) over such objects; moreover, in every period it is necessary to update these beliefs, and, finally, to compute best replies to them. At the other extreme are evolutionary dynamics.Here the individuals in each population do not exhibit any degree of rationality; their behavior (“phenotype”) is completely mechanistic, dictated by their “genotype.” They do not compute anything—they just “are there” and play their fixed actions. What may be viewed as somewhat rational is the aggregate dynamic of the population (particularly the selection component), which affects the relative proportions of the various actions.
Why do players not learn that they are trapped in cycles? This question leads to the idea of adaptive learning where in fact players are less rational and less informed than in fictitious play. Peyton Young modelled a context of short-sighted players with limited information and reasoning ability and a probabilistic error rate independent across the players as a Markov process which he termed adaptive play. The basic ingredients are bounded by rational reactions to predictions of other players' past behavior, that are estimated from limited data and stochastically distorted. In contrast to the ESS a stochastically stable equilibrium is even robust against persistent random perturbations".