main index

P00: frame around

P01: olicognography

P03: infrastructures

wayout:contact

Registers of application docs

homewaterwell

wat.planning

*text*

excreta.dispos.

Similar user docs

toilet.pits

wat.schemes

*text*

chem.activ.

Water Biologic Pathogens

Waters Biologic Contamination

Water Hygiene

Control of coliform

Values activ. 99.9% kystes parasitic Giardia pH 6 - 9

Limits E. coli

number/ 100 ml

in potentially contaminated waters


5C

15C

25C

type of water

limit

human population

controls /

months

chlorine

54

27

14

fresh water

126

25 - 1000

1

chloride

192

96

48

salt water

35

3301 - 4100

4

ozone

1.9

0.95

0.48

leisure (beach)

235

8501 - 12900

10

chloramins

2200

1500

750



17201 - 21500

20







39001 - 41000

40





Efficiency of water renewal in landscape with barriers

Safety distance from sources of water contamination



affluent average concentration

decrease concentration rate

efficiency

meters

from well or suction pipe

from water flow (river)

from

property limits



mg. l-1

mg.l-1

rate

Pig solidwaste

DBO5

1131

8.9

0.98

pipes joints

if not molded iron

15

9


P

18

0.02

1

sewage

molded iron

9

9


suspended solids


3000

nil

~ 1

septic tanks

15

15

3.5

TKN

937

187.4

0.8

Pipe / distrib. Box

15

15

3.5

Dairy solidwaste

DBO5

1637

18.9

0.99

distribution box

33

33

7

P

38.5

0.22

0.99

field of absorption

33

33

7

suspended solids


4400

nil

~ 1

well of resurgence

50

33

7

NTK

917

27.5

0.97

Dry well

15

9

7

Removal of micro-organism


built tank system

33

33

7

1ary treatment

activated sludge

trickling filter

evapotranspiration system

33

15

7

Coliform

< 0.1

0.5

0.85


underground sanitary tank

33

15

7

Salmonella

0.075

0.85

0.85


waterproof underground tank

15

15

3.5

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

0.5

0.55

0.85


Survival times of organisms


Shigella

0.15

0.85

0.9


Organism

media

survival days


Entamoeba histolytica

0.25

limited

limited


Ascaris ova

vegetables

27 - 35


helminth ova

0.75

limited

0.66


Ascaris ova

soil

730 - 2010


enteric viruses

limited

0.5

0.45


Entamoeba histolitica

vegetables

3


Reduction in disease morbidity or infection rate

Entamoeba histolitica

soil

6 - 8


Diarrhoeal diseases in general

median

range

Entamoeba histolitica

water

60 +


water quality


0.16

0 - 0.9

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

soil

180 +


water availability


0.25

0 - 1.0

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

grass

10 - 40


water q & a.


0.37

0 - 0.82

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

water

30 - 90


excreta disposal


0.22

0 - 0.48

Salmonella (spp)

vegetables

3 - 40 +


water sup; or excreta dispos.

0.22

0 - 1.0

Salmonella (spp)

soil

15 - 280+


small service improvement & adult literacy

< 40

0.18

0 - 0.11

Salmonella (spp)

pasture

200 +


40 - 75

0.2

0 - 0.04

Salmonella (spp)

grass

100 +


> 75

0.16

0 - 0.1

Salmonella typhi

vegetables

10 - 53


large service improvement & adult literacy

< 40

0.46

0 - 0.07

Salmonella typhi

lettuce

18 - 21


40 - 75

0.39

0 - 0.08

Salmonella typhi

soil

2 - 120


> 75

0.32

0 - 0.13

Salmonella typhi

water

87 - 104


water supply or excreta disposal

cholera

0.41

0 - 0.11

Shigella (spp)

vegetables

7


Shigella

0.48

0 - 0.27

Shigella (spp)

grass

42


E. histoli.

0.02

0 - 0.17

Shigella sonnei

tomatoes

2 - 10


Giardia l.

0.0

0 - 0.1

Streptococcus faecalis

soil

26 - 77



Vibrio cholerae

vegetables

5 - 14


Vibrio comma

water

32


Poliovirus

water

20


Sanitation and Water supply Health

water-borne diseases

infection

infections thousands /

year mid 80'

deaths thousands per year mid 80'

average n of days lost per case

relative disability

Water-borne diseases: spread by drinking or washing hands, foods or utensils in contaminated water, which acts as a passive vehicle for the infecting agent

Amoebiasis

400000

30

8.5

3

Diarrheas

4000000

7500

4.5

2

Polio

80000

15

3000+

2

Typhoid

1000

25

20

2

Water-washed diseases: spread by poor personal hygiene and insufficient water for washing. Lack of proper facilities for human waste disposal is another contributing factor

Ascariasis

900000

20

8.5

3

Leprosy

12000

very low

1750

2.5

Trichuriasis

500000

low

8.5

3

Water-based diseases transmitted by a vector which spends a part of its life cycle in water. Contact with water thus infected conveys the disease-causing parasite through the skin or mouth

Schistosomiasis

200000

7500

800

3.5

Diseases with water-related vectors contracted though infections-carrying insects which breed in water and bite near it, especially when it is stagnant

African trypanosomyasis

1000

5

150

1

Malaria

800000

1200

4

2

Onchocerciasis

30000

35

3000

1.5

Fecal disposal diseases caused by organisms that breed in excreta when sanitation is defective

Hookworm

8000000

55

100

4

Migration of viruses beneath land treatment sites

Sources of microorganisms in distribution water


depth

average

depth

stand. error

horizontal

migration

source

micro-organisms

(notice importance of enterobacteria)

hot climate slow infiltration

14

14

7

woo

Klebsiella

cold climate slow infiltration

10

Check 10

-

filter sand, filter effluent, piping, filter bed

C. freundii, E.coli

rapid infiltration temperate cold climate low depth

6

3

17

pipe, tubercules, floc, sediment, pipe biofilm

E.coli, K.pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, E.cloacae, E.agglomerans, C. freundii

rapid infiltration temperate cold climate high depth

29

12

310

treatment plant

K.pneumoniae, E.cloacae, Enterobacter sp

hot desertic climate rapid infiltration

39

25

111

Biofilm

K.pneumoniae, K. ozaenae, K. rhinoscleromatis, E.coli, E.cloacae, E.aerogenes, E.sakazaki, C. freundii

Main fecal-oral water related infections

GAC, sand, anthracite filter beds

K. oxytoca, K.pneumoniae, E.coli, E.agglomerans, E.cloacae, E.aerogenes, E.sakazaki, C. freundii Serratia sp.

Diarrhoeas & dysenteries

bacteria

Campylobacter enteritis, Cholera, E.coli, Shigellosis, Yersiniosis

virus

rotavirus

invertebrates

Aerobacter aerogenes (Enterobacter aerogenes)

protozoon

giardiasis, amoebic dysentery, balantidiasis

nematodes


Enteric fever

bacteria

typhoid, paratyphoid

open finished water reservoir

total coliforms

Other specific clinic

virus

poliomyelitis, hepatitis A

treatment breakthrough pipe break

E.aerogenes, E.agglomerans, K.pneumoniae, K. oxytoca,


spirochaete

leptospirosis




Helminth

(worms)

Ascariasis, Trichuriasis



Places of use docs

wast.wat.plant

toxicindustry

compost.econ.

cropsoils