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Registers of application docs

chem.react.

wat.pollution

citydev.

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Similar user docs

urb.runoff

treat.techni.

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Waters Chemical Pollution

Significant metals in the treatment of residual waters



nutrients biogrowth

concentration range

inhib. organism.

observed use

for

Previous dosis

mud applied

Chemical substance relevant to drinking wter

metal

symbol

macro

micro

hetetrophic mg/l

afluent/soil

in soil

origin

Limit value mg/l


arsenic

As



0.05


yes

rock, industrialwaste, iron, steel...

0.01

Arsenic

cadmium

Cd



1


yes

water disinfection product

5

Chlorine Cl2

calcium

Ca

yes



yes


pipes corrosion agriculture

2

Copper

chrome

Cr


yes

10.1



rocks, fertilizers,fish, industrial aluminium industry

1.5

Fluorides

cobalt

Co


yes




natural, chemical industry, lead pipes

0.01

Lead

copper

Cu


yes

1


yes

iron bearing rocks

0.4

Manganese

iron

Fe

yes





fecal, organic contamination, leaching, fertilizer

50

Nitrates

lead

Pb


yes

0.1


yes

organic matter

3

Nitrities

magnesium

Mg

yes

yes

0.1

yes


Drinking water parameters ( & previous)

manganese

Mn


yes




color

15 TCU


mercury

Hg





yes

Conductivity mg/l

1000

1400ÁS/cm

molybden

Mo


yes



yes

turbidity

5 NTU


nickel

Ni


yes

1


yes

Aluminium mg/l

0.2


potassium

K

yes





Amonia NH4 mg/l

1.5


selenium

Se


yes




Chloride Cl- mg/l

250


sodium

Na

yes



yes


Hardness mg/l

200

From Ca & Mg

tungsten

W


yes




Hydrogen sulphid H2S mg/l

0.05

Anaerobic / organic

vanadium

V


yes




Sodium Na+ mg/l

200


Zinc

Zn


yes

1


yes

Sulphates SO4-- mg/l

250

industry








Iron Fe++ mg/l

0.3









Zinc Zn mg/l

4


Typical delay coefficient of underwaters contamination

Well water most common contaminations

Water pollution occurence


soil I

soil II

soil III

trichloethylene

carbon tetrachlorure

chloromethane


Europe


rb=1.4; n=0.4

rb=1.6; n=0.3

rb=1.75; n=0.55

toluene

dibromure ethylene

phtalate buthyl-benzil

pesticides residues detected

0.45


fract. = 0.002

fract. = 0.005

fract. = 0.05

1.1.1 trichloethane

xilene

gamma BHC (lindane)

exceeding maximum residual limit

0.04

benzen

1.2

1.7

5.3

acetone

isopropilbenzene

1.1.2 trichloroethane



toluene

1.7

3.6

17

chlorure methylene

1.1 dichloroethane

alfa-bhc



aniline

1.1

1.2

2.2

dioxane

1.2 dichloroetane

parathion



di-n-propyl phtalate

5.6

19

110

ethilbencene

phtalate bis (2-ethylhexil)




fluorene

23

86

500

tetrachloroethane

dibromochloro propane




N-pentane

7

24

140

ciclohexane

trifluorotriclor ethane




rb:density granel g/cm3

n: porosity ratio


chloroforme

dibromochloro methane






organic carbon soil fraction

phtalate di-n.butyl

chlorure vinyl




Marine Water Pollution Bioconcentration

Selected human health & environmental effects from toxic chemical


mercury

mercury

mercury

chemical






mussel

urchin

bird egg

aldrin/dieldrin

yes


tremors, convulsions, kidney damage

aquatixoc, bioaccumulation birds reproduction

close to toxic source

0,12 to 4,6

1 to 4,95

0,84 to 2,1

arsenic

yes

yes

vomiting, poisoning, liver & kidney damage

toxic to legume crops

far from toxic source

0.65

0.01

0,1 to 0,7

benzene

yes


anemia, bone marrow damage

to some fish &aquatic invertebrates

Wastewater metal residues in industrial cities

cadmium


yes

suspected causal factor in many pathologies: tumors, kidney, hyper-tension, arteriosclerosis, itai-itai disease (weak bones) emphysema

toxic to fish, bioaccumulates significantly in bivalve mollusks

Element

concentration in typical sludge (ppm)

Efficiency of process reduction

DDT

yes

minimal

tremors, convulsions; kidney damage

reproductive failure of birds & fish, bioaccu-mulate& magnifies in food chains

physical

chemical

di-n-butylphtalate



central nervous system damage

eggshell thinning inbirds, toxic to some fish

Al

0.56

0.82

0.52

dioxin

yes

yes

acute skin rashes, systemic damage mortality

bioaccumulates, lethal to aquatic organisms birds & mammals

Ag

0.001



Hardnes of residual waters (mg/l)


As

12microg/l

0.22

0.47

component

low

normal

high


B

0.38

0.05

0.06

total solid

400

700

1000


Ba

0.13

0.64

0.53

solid. suspended

100

200

350


Ca

50

0.06

0.15

DOL

100

200

400


Cd

0.014

0.56

0.77

Odour Range of Residual Water


Co

0.03

0.25

0

compost odour

mole-cular weight

range of odour ppm

smell


Cr

0.23

0.79

0.93

amonia

17

46.8

amonia


Fe

1.13

0.89

0.94

chlore

71

0.31



Hg

0.54 microg/l

0.55

0.45

crohyilmercaptane

90.19

0

skunk


K

14

0.07

0.08

dimethylsulphur

62

0

rotten vegetable


Mg

5.2

0.06

0.06

dephenylsulphur

186

0



Mn

0.07

0.43

0.75

ethylmercaptane

62

0

rotten cabbage


Mo

15

0.72

0.85

sulphur hydrog.

34

0

rotten eggs


Na

103

0.04

0.06

indol

117

0



Ni

0.1

0.33

0.55

methylamine

31

21



Pb

0.11

0.6

0.64

methylmercaptane

48

0

rotten cabbage


Se

7.2microg/l

0.8

0.9

escatol

132

0.02

fecal material


Si

9.6



Sulphur dioxide

64.07

0.01



V

5.2



thiocresol

124

0

skunk, rancid


Zn

0.43

-

0.83






Places of use docs

wast.wat.plant

toxic.industry

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