main index

P00: frame around

P01: olicognography

P03: infrastructures

wayout:contact

Registers of application docs

buildingstruc.hazardass

soilproperties

*text *

seism.perform

Similar user docs

soilparticles

soilhydro

*text*

*graph*

Summary of Density Methods for Preparing Building Underground (nfm)


soil group


soil types



degree of compaction

typical equipment and procedure for compaction


field control

Deep foundation methods

equipment

n of passes or coverages

comp. lift thick in.

placement water content

compaction methods

field control

Pervious - free draining


GW


GP


SW


SP

com -pac -ted


90 - 95% of CE 55 maximum density

75 - 80% of relative density

vibratory rollers and compacters

indefinite

indefinite

saturate by flooding

control sample at intervals to determine degree of compaction or relative density



rubber tired roller

2 - 5 coverages

12

crawler type tractor

2 - 5 coverages

8

power hand tasper

indefinite

6

semi- com -pac -ted

85 - 90% of CE 55 maximum density


65 - 75% of relative density

rubber tired roller

2 - 5 coverages

14

saturate by flooding

control sample as above, if needed





vibro-flotation compaction piles, sand piles, explosives

surface compaction as noted above

undisturbed samples from borings or test pits to determine degree of compaction or relative density

crawler type tractor

1 - 2 coverages

10

power band tasper

indefinite

8

controlled routing of construction equipment

indefinite

8 - 10

semi pervious and imper -vious

GM

GC

SM

SC

ML

CL

OL

OK

MH

CH

OH

com -pac -terd

90 - 95% of CE 55 maximum density

rubber tired roller

2 - 5 coverages

8

optimum water content based on CE 55 test with 12 blows per layer

control samples at intervals to determine degree of compaction

1) surface compaction by equipment and procedures is feasible only if material is at proper water content

2) Densification of soil is controlled by consolidation process: - pre-load fills - lowering of groundwater table - drying

Consolidation may be accelerated by means of sand drains

Field control exercised by observation of pore pressure ans surface settlement

sheep foot roller

4 - 8 passes

6

power hand tasper

indefinite

4

semi- com -pac -ted

85- 90% of CE 55 maximum density

rubber tired roller

2 - 4 coverages

10

1) optimum water content based on CE 55 test with 7 blows per layer; 2) by obser -vation side maximum water content at which material can operate, dry- side minimum water content require to bond particles with no voids or honeycombed material

1) control samples as noted above if needed

2) field control exercised by visual inspection of action of compacting equipment

sheeps foot roller

4 - 8 passes

8

crawler type tractor

3 coverages

6

power hand tasper

indefinite

6

controlled routing of construction equipment

indefinite

6 - 8

Typical Engineering Properties of Compacted Material

group symbol

soil type

range of maximum dry unit weight pcf

range of optimum water content %

compression typical value

typical strength characteristics

typical coeffi-cient of permeability ft/min

range of CBR values

range of sub-grade mo-dulus lb/cu inc

potential frost action

at 2.5 kgf

at 7.5 kgf

cohesion (as compacted pcf)

cohesion (saturated pcf)

effective stress envelop deg

GW

well graded clean gravels, gravel sand mixture

125 - 135

11 - 8

0.3

0.6

0

0

> 38

5. 10

40 - 80

300 - 500

none to very light

GP

poorly graded clean gravels, gravel sand mix.

115 - 125

14 - 11

0.4

0.9

0

0

> 37

10

30 - 60

250 -400

none to very light

GM

silty gravels, poorly graded gravel sand silt

120 - 135

12 - 8

0.5

1.1

-

-

> 34

> 10

20 - 60

100 - 400

slight to medium

CG

clayey gravels, poorly graded gravel sand clay

115 - 130

14 - 9

0.7

1.6

-

-

> 31

> 10

20 - 40

100 - 300

slight to medium

SW

well graded clean sand, gravelly sands

110 - 130

16- 9

0.6

1.2

0

0

38

> 10

20 - 40

200 - 300

none to slight

SP

poorly graded clean sands, gravel mix

100 - 120

21- 12

0.8

1.4

0

0

37

> 10

10 - 40

200 - 300

none to slight

SM

silty sands, poorly graded sand silt mix

110 - 125

16- 11

0.8

1.6

1050

420

34

5. 10

10 - 40

100 - 300

slight to medium

SM - SC

sand silt, clay mix with slightly plastic fines

110 - 130

15- 11

0.8

1.4

1050

300

33

2. 10




SC

clayey sands, poorly graded sand clay mix

105 - 125

19- 11

1.1

2.2

1550

230

31

2. 10

5 - 20

100 - 300

slight to high

ML

inorganic silts and clayey silts

95 - 120

24- 12

0.9

1.7

1400

190

32

10

15 or less

100 - 200

medium - very high

ML-CL

mixture of inorganic silt and clay

100 - 120

22- 12

1.0

2.2

1350

460

32

5.10

-

100 - 200


CL

inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity

95 - 120

24- 12

1.3

2.5

1800

270

28

10

15 or less

50 - 200

medium to high

OL

organic silt and silt-clays of low plasticity

80 - 100

33- 21

-

-

-

-

-

-

5 or less

50 - 100

medium to high

MH

inorganic clayey silts elastic silts

75 - 95

40 - 24

2.0

3.8

1500

420

25

5. 10

10 or less

50 - 100

medium - very high

CH

inorganic clays of high plasticity

80 - 105

36 - 19

2.6

3.9

2150

230

19

10

15 or less

50 - 150

medium

OH

organic clays and silty clays

75 - 100

45 - 21

-

-

-

-

-

-

5 or less

25 - 100

medium

Places of use docs

usgeology

soilclassification

safearchit.

soilimprovm.