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Biological Effects of Radiations

Use

Severt

Abuse

Localized radiotherapy, cancer induced by radiotherapy

> 10

sacrified tehcnician at Tchernobyl, cutaneous necrosis, death

leukemias & neogenesis

1

thyroid cancers in young population

maximum dosis admitted over 5 years, professional exposure in Europe

0.1

radioactive iode bsorption in case of nuclear accident

maximum dosis admitted over 1 year, professional exposure in Europe

0.05


heavy scan received

0.02

dosis received by Frenchmen after Techernobyl

light scan dosis received

0.01


accepted accidental non professional european overdosis when exposure average medical or radon exposure /person.year

0.001


maximum exposure save accident, neighbours of nuclear plant in France

2 hours in plane at 12kms altitude

0.000001

normal natural irradiation or TV and PC exposure

Maximum permissible dose for occupational exposure

Radionucleides of potential environmental concern produced by nuclear reactors

Combined whole body occupational exposure

radionucleides

Half life

radiation

source

Prospective annual limit rem/year

5

3H

12.3 years

β

Fission product, Neutron activation

Retrospective annual limit rems / year

10 - 15

14C

5568 years

β

Neutron activation

Long term accumulation (age - 18) * 5 rems

24Na

15 hours

β, γ

Neutron activation

Skin rems / year

15

32P

14 days

β

Neutron activation

Hands rems / year

75

36S

87 days

β

Neutron activation

Foreharms rems / year

30

41Ar

110 minutes

β, γ

Neutron activation

Other organs, tissues and organ systems rems / year

15

45Ca

16 days

β

Neutron activation

Fertile women (respect to fetus) rems / gestation

0.5

54Mn

291 days

γ

Neutron activation

Dose limits for the public or occasinonally exposed subjects

55Fe

2.6 years

x

Neutron activation

Occasionaly exposed individuals rems / year

0.5

59Fe

45 days

β, γ

Neutron activation

Students rems / year

0.1

57Co

270 days

γ

Neutron activation

Population dose limit genetic rems average / year

0.17

58Co

71 days

β, γ

Neutron activation

Population dose limit somatic rems average / year

0.17

60Co

5.2 years

β, γ

Neutron activation

Emergency dose limits - life savings individual rems

100

65Zn

245 days

β, γ

Neutron activation

Emerg. dose limits - life savings hands & forearms rems

200 - < 300

85Kr

10 years

β, γ

Fission product

Emergency dose limits - less urgent individual rems

25

89Sr

51 days

β

Fission product

Emerg. dose limits - less urgent hands & forearms rems

Total < 100

90Sr

28 years

β

Fission product

Family of radioactive patients individual < 45 years old

0.5

91Y

58 days

β, γ

Fission product

Family of radioactive patients individual > 45 years old

5

96Zr

65 days

β, γ

Fission product

Oncogenous effects of low dosis of irradiation for US population

100Ru

40 days

β, γ

Fission product

source

Irradiation

(rem:year)

Latency delay

Steady state

plateau

Rate of induced cancer

106Ru

1.0 years

β, γ

Fission product

Storer 1969




0.05

129I

1.7 * 10

β, γ

Fission product

Gofman & Tamplin

0.17

5 years (in utero)

20 years

0.031

131I

8.1 days

β, γ

Fission product

BEIR 1972

0.01

None (in utero

10 ans

0.01

134Cs

2 years

β, γ

Fission product

2 - 3 years none

10 - 15 ans

0.01

137Cs

27 years

β, γ

Fission product

BEIR 1980

All life


none

0 - 0.07

140Ba

12.8 years

β, γ

Fission product

Britain ionizating irradiations 1991

143Ce

33 hours

β, γ

Fission product

Natural sources



total: 1860


ΜSievert/year

144Ce

285 days

β, γ

Fission product

Cosmic rays

310

147Nd

11 days

β, γ

Fission product

Rocks radioactivity

380

239Pu

24360 years

α, γ

Neutron activation

Radon

800

239Np

2.3 days

β, γ

Neutron activation

Body radioactivity

370

241Am

4770 years

α, γ

Neutron activation

Artificial sources



Total: 530

medicine

500

242Cm

163 days

α, γ

Neutron activation

Nuclear assays

10





Professional exposure

9





Others (TV screens...)

8





Nuclear industry waste

3





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