main index

P00: frame around

P01: olicognography

P03: infrastructures




Graph Start

Core n
Half complex graph








Cooperation & Participate

Basic Olicognograph: Democracy

Together: Social Capital ?

"Social capital generally refers to trust, concern for one's associates, a willingness to live by the norms of one's community and to punish those who do not. might be, but to ask instead a fundamental question facing any group of people who have agreed on a joint course of action: under what contexts can the members be sanguine that the promises they have made to one another are credible ? Dasgupta's exploration: 1) Trust and Credibility: - Mutual Affection - Pro-social Disposition - The Need for Incentives to Keep Promises - External Enforcement - Reputation as Capital Asset - Mutual Enforcement in Long-term Relationships; 2) Culture as Beliefs : - Cultural Stereotypes - Civic Virtues - Culture vs Explanatory Variables - Social Capital; 3) Creating Networks: - Network Externalities - Weak and Strong Ties - Inherited Ties - Multiple Equilibria Again - Contagion Models; 4) Networks Sustained: - Human Capital - Horizontal ve. Vertical Networks - Networks and Markets ( - Complementarities - Crowding Out); 5) Micro-Behaviour and Macro-Performance: - Scale vs. Change - Cross-Section - Network Inefficiencies - Dark Matters 6) Standard Weaknesses of Social Capital: - Exploitation within Networks". With Putman "Social capital refers to connections among individuals - social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them... A society of many virtuous but isolated individuals is not necessarily rich in social capital" (Dasgupta, Bowles & Gintis) .

See also the extended concept of real integral capital where tranversally, human operator(s) manage a tools box (now and here) and a technologic (now and further according past but not so simple). Making as a delocalized cloud between 3 factors. Also higher scaling, from individual to social, because socially economical. So a second integrative cloud of intermediate trajectories extended to the population at work (complicated interactions between collections of humans), all actually working techniques and machines and; working to reproduce society. Not just the population at work alone, but to include all within a civilization of technologies or system. Yet not to speak of social classes, discontinuities and other intermediate complexities but, at least, to structure space in time(s) of reproduction. This designs a minimum sense of integrated poles of humans - factors - pooling perspective on capital: human and social, tools and collections of means: techniques required by major machines and knowledge - logics - technologies... Not a so complex overview, to care about capital varieties and potentialities with which social frames should intent to establish projects of transformations.

“Human nature is not a machine to be built after a model and set to do exactly the work prescribed for it, but a tree, which requires to grow and develop itself on all sides, according to the tendency of the inward forces which make it a living thing.” (J.S. Mill. 1859)


For good or for bad there are plenty of reasons for cooperations, exchange, barter and trade (the later with the complex program of money and good or service). From theories of coalition of power to struggle, up to an altruistic view on everyone. Especially with information: " 2 advantageous effects of information sharing in the costly measurement model: individuals in a collective have more information than in isolation, and pay less for it". For example coalition formation models require combinations of notions partly from different domains: relational algebra, graph theory, social choice theory and bargaining.

"It has been found by experiment that any 2 people in the world, chosen at random, are connected to one another by a short chain of intermediate acquaintances, of typical length about 6". As a result and out biological facts, if anyone is different from al others, it is not so difficult to find anyhow some community between. "This phenomenon, colloquially referred to as the “six degrees of separation”. Now "many regularities in network structures across applications makes a social networks obvious and suggest possibilities of studies and policies". "The wide variety of settings where social networks play a role leads to an almost endless set to investigate". Numbers higher than 2 can make the reason for cooperation as: "Of the 4 population structures given by global and local learning and global and local game interactions, local interaction with global learning which provides a more favorable environment for the evolution of cooperation. This occurs because this combination of learning and interaction structures supports a high level of between group variance in the frequency of cooperative types, so that most cooperators benefit from being in groups composed mostly of cooperators. However neither global learning nor local interactions are enough by self to support high levels of cooperation. Learning globally and playing locally are highly complementary: global learning in the presence of global interactions or local interaction in the presence of local learning, makes little contribution to the evolutionary success of cooperative traits".

"Simple models of the growth of social networks, can be based on 3 general principles:

  1. Meetings take place between pairs of individuals at a rate which is high if a pair has one or more mutual friends and low otherwise;
  2. Acquaintances between pairs of individuals who rarely meet decay over time;
  3. There is an upper limit on the number of friendships an individual can maintain".

There is also the "need for models that incorporate all features reproducing features of real social networks, including high levels of clustering or network transitivity and strong community structure in which individuals have more links to others within their community than to individuals from other communities". The complexities of processes, as similar as they could be, always different especially if requiring to be well appropriated and adapted to a given environment, be it as well social and environmental, make that any project cannot proceed, with humanity, without cooperation, at the minimum neutral-non-negative, neither against community. "Communication plays a key role in the ability of agents to reach and maintain superior coordination. In the absence of communication, agents tend to get trapped at the inferior coordination point. However, once agents reach a particular strategic threshold, sending even a priori meaningless messages serves to increase the likelihood that the population will coordinate on the superior outcome".

"Total relatedness in group structured models can be partitioned into 2 components: structural relatedness due to the size and number of groups in the population and assortative relatedness, due to the distribution of genotypes among groups. Positive relatedness requires positive assortment for other-only but not for whole-group traits. Negative relatedness is possible for other-only but not whole-group traits. Relatedness depends on average group size for whole-group but not other-only traits, and non-random assortment into groups affects relatedness more strongly for other-only than whole-group traits". [This dual frame can develop rather well with the vertical - order relation (detailed on superior - inferior) and horizontal relationship (peer to peer or equal and different thus branching one). Think too that vertical kind with difference makes in (inclusion - incorporation) and out (apart). More complete ontology would consider meeting (match) and time, so before - after or divergent - convergent].

Even with the harshest ways (cooperate or die!), very special conditions have been necessary for entreprise be profitable. This harshest ways often produce social systems entering into diversity regression, and can be late to introduce significant (non bureaucratic disguise) innovations. Only the switch to huge new energetic ressources prevent sorts of regressions. To observe with sustainability that: now-a-days more profitable society evolution and better shared benefits have come from a sense to respect more the environment and the humans meanwhile finding in technological smart advance the engine(s) of progress (often better to think with clusters of innovations helped by higher densities or concentrations of probabilities of coincidences has can happens in districts). The least minimum at the respect is simply our intermediate position metabolism and the need for renewal of our environment; there are plenty other good or smart options with moral intermediating reasons.

Participation and Share between Actors

It is to observe a gap between cooperation (micro and wide) and participation in almost any macro-project implement. Often big, especially when compared to the surplus of local economy. Meanwhile, in the hope to turn more properly to real participation, then Participation and the: "Purpose of Participation (S. Arnstein):

  1. Manipulation – to keep people quiet;
  2. Therapy – making people feel better;
  3. Informing – letting people know what is going on;
  4. Consultation - information plus feedback;
  5. Placation – appearing to meet demands for participation, but no real power sharing;
  6. Partnership – shared planning and decision-making;
  7. Delegated power – citizens are given some decisions to make alone;
  8. Citizen Control of the whole project".

Here too the motivations are not as nakedly sentimentally positive. In the following table some of these methods.

Public Participation Techniques (nfm)

Highlighted techniques Some other techniques


Meeting * Public notice * Website * Written documents

Discussion papers * Exhibition * Promotion


Citizens panel * Community information and feedback session * Facilitation * Focus group * Public hearing * Questionnaire

Community needs analysis * Networking * Strategic questioning


Planning focus meeting * Precinct committee

Community needs analysis * Networking * Strategic questioning


Advisory committee * Charette * Policy round table * Regional forum * Search conference

Strategic questioning


Citizens jury

Joint venture

Robust Proceeding (but not brutal ones)

More than a dozen people in a team, has the effect of blurring complex objectives and can miss to care constraints. So there, many people, or working teams can loose quickly their ability to resolve interpersonal conflicts, if there is no dictatorial hand to set priorities. It is not to avoid any simplifications, just do not put them first. Our modern materialist world is quite reductive, especially as far as our specified technical uses are concerned, and this is not very useful to cope with contradictions. These reductions have to come on time and in stages given by community processes. They must not be imposed, as in by sentences, that is the best that can be done for you. You manage a scheme, a logical plan or a graph in a wide sense; to clarify consensus, reduce and inscribe into tasks. Between three well-known values: politic, social, economy seek balances of registers. You have to neutralize prejudging interpretations, that is, preserve the values from judgment so as to reach enough details in the categories.

Now we cannot approach properly here all the sort of economics of groups, clubs and coalitations which are objectivelly making most of todays' economics. Complex networks offer a huge new field of studies together with the understanding of graphs algebra including cognition or other neurosciences. Formally it is also a playfield of theory of games. The humane problems being how to set the fair ways of playing and not make too much reductions with common systems of rules of laws as developed by judicial systems. For later ones many things and writings exist articulating processes because the enormous ambitions of global world and international laws. The economics of that is also explored. Among all this enormous complications there are nevertheless a need for sense of economics, in which sciences of complexities have to shade some lights onto wise management of all that, to give some "reasonable proportions, in a suggestive way rather than a deterministic one, for biothermoeconomics. May be olicognography could provide with some preliminary intermediate and transient tools.

'Robustness' has to do with the stability and resistance to perturbation of dynamics changes or complex systems as they evolve in state space: “A dynamical system is said to be structurally stable if small perturbations to the system result in a new dynamical system with the same qualitative dynamics.

  • The concept of robustness raises additional questions that lie outside the purview of stability theory, such as the interplay of system organization and system dynamics.
  • If a result can be arrived at in more than one way, we must obtain the same result for every possible sequence of operations on our symbols.
  • The rules must include deductive logic as a special case. In the limit where propositions become certain or impossible in any way that every equation must reduce to a valid example of deductive reasoning.
  • In case where a consistent theory leads to results which contradict common sense, the person applying the theory has additional information of some sort, relevant to the question being asked, but not actually incorporated into the equations. Then this common sense utilizes this information unconsciously and of necessity comes to a different conclusion than that provided by the theory"
  • Reverting the concept of stability of equilibria, dynamics equilibria making trouble and considering the maintenance of critical desequilibria oriented toward the necessity for the preservation of major complex units open systems (ourwelves for humans beings), robustness would be the maintenance of enough wide and diverse flow of complex inputs. Being economics both contained in the complexity of inputs (as close as possible - 're-raw' it costs less and the minimization of needs (caring the uncertainties of future) for the preservation of the sources of resources (as the whole, the sustainable sake of Mother Earth if you like).

Now, in our opinion, theories scientifically consistent, in social and economical specialized registers can only practically be short, or are not according the implicit degree of incoporation of scientific technological issues they include: globally incomplete (locally they can formally more or less arbitrarilly closed). A way to make them more consistent would be to look at consistent information about energetic equivalents of transformations and their dynamics, including those regularly occuring in the natural and social environment, where transformations take place. To balance also those theories, the models objectivelly assumed by populations concerned by transformations. There also a theories that question a hierarchy between social economical theories. Problem with E. & T. Odum has been that such pictured system came too simple and, without enforment, too apart from still traditional processes of social decisions.

When you develop the logical field of some kind of methods, you combine principles, advantages, and inconveniences of approximate methods then gross approximations of values. Previously (ex ante) you fulfill more or less a conceptual field (of hypothesis) generally using means or some other truth. Making an analysis you ought to have a purpose. When practicing you have an abstract goal. That is your need to cross registers. you try to define the conceptual field, covering as many significant concepts as possible relevant to your problem. Thereafter, with practical goals, users eventually redesign the conceptual environment for better appropriation: to make their own. They specify practical pathways or selected options to cover, matching means and conceptual areas. Generally it is not to giving to just one leader, all the space but to share, distribute and define relationships. This is negociated, accorded, printed or footprinted, reproduced and kept as a record.

Keep in mind that under practical democratic goals, the sincerity of the actors is essential. This is to reach; not just to say it, so effectively provide effective services, especially if all have a perspective of free individual actors. Common social virtues are important. When you act, if you cannot do more then one issue at a time, you nevertheless have to manage many different things in very different registers, cut over short periods of time. Each day, you make dozens of decisions. Some important decisions are required for necessary maintenance. Modern society simplifies this, making that with people in poor and precarious conditions those who have the most critical, complicated, and essential decisions to make in relative terms must design other then traditional flexibilies. This is, perhaps, a reason why being irritated when looking at comfortably, well-established helpers—petits et grands bourgeois— giving lessons to poor people, making themselves examples, and missing that it is that their society more than their talents that gave them their achievment.