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P01: olicognography

P03: infrastructures

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Registers of application docs

sewage

urbansewage

*text *

excretadispos.

Similar user docs

toilet.select.

homewaste

*text*

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Sanitation Options

Popular Disposal Options

Fecal sludge from in-site sanitation


pit privy

improved pit privy

aqua privy

compost toilet

bucket latrine


high strengh

low strengh

sewage

cost

none

1.5 times pit privy

2 times pit privy

2 times pit privy

no construction cost, but operation may be costly depending on community

example

public toilet or bucket latrine sludge

stepage

tropical sewage

design features

pit, slab(squat or seat, lid, shelter

same as pit privy + either pour-flush bowl, vent, pipe, off-set pit, or combination

vault, slab (squat or seat), shelter, soak away

double vault, 2 slabs (squat or seat), shelter

platform, slab (squat or seat), bucket, shelter, large containers cart

COD mg/l

20 - 50000

< 15000

500 - 2500

construction skills

minimal

minimal

some masonry

some masonry

minimal

COD/DOB

5:1 .... 10:1

5:1 .... 10:1

2:1

slab material

bamboo, wood or concrete

bamboo, wood, concrete,ceramic or plastic

concrete

concrete

bamboo, wood or concrete

NH4 - N mg/l

2 - 5000

< 1000

30 - 70

water requirement

no

no except for pour-flush

yes

no

not for operation, yes for washing trenches

TS mg /l

≥ 3.5%

< 3%

< 1%

handling of waste

none

none

every 2-6 year as sludge

every 6-12 months as compost

every 1-3 days as excreta

SS mg/l

≥ 30000

7000

200 - 700

maintenance

clean slab weekly, dig new pit and move slab & shel-ter each 4 - 6 years

same as pit privy, if off-set pit, clean chute, weekly and dig new pit every 10 or more years

- maintain water level in vault - clean slab weekly, dig new pit every 10 or more years

- clean slab weekly - alternate use of vaults every 6 - 12 months by removing compost, clean one vault, seal the other

- clean slab weekly, remove excreta every 1 - 3 days; clean buckets every 1 - 3 days - cart excreta to trenching ground & bury it or to composting area

helminths eggs

number / l

20 - 60000

4000

300 - 2000

Suggested effluent and biosolids quality guidelines for the treatment of faecal sludges

Impact of Sanitation

A. Liquid Effluent

BOD (mg/l) total

BOD (mg/l) filtered

NH4-N (mg/l)

Helminth eggs (n/L)

FC (n/100mL)

Categoy

impact

1. discharge into receiving waters






I : Faecal-oral, non bacterial

negligible

seasonal stream or estuary

100 - 200

30 - 60

10 - 30

≤ 2 - 5

≤ 10

II. Faecal-oral bacterial

weak to moderate

perenial river or sea

200 - 300

60 - 90

20 - 50

≤ 10

≤ 10

III. Soil-borne helminths

strong

2. Reuse






IV. Cow and pig parasites

strong

restricted irrigation

not critical

not critical

crop nitrogen requirement 100-200kgN/ ha.year

≤ 1

≤ 10

V. Water-born helminths

moderate

unrestricted irrigation

not critical

not critical

crop nitrogen requirement 100-200kgN/ ha.year

≤ 1

≤10

VI. Vectors (insects)

weak to moderate

B. Treated plant sludge









use in agriculture

not critical

not critical

not critical

≤ 3 - 8/ g TS

safe level if egg standard is met

nfm: not from me, various

Places of use docs

biogasreservoir

residualwaters

compost.econ.

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